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Full text of "Enter Magazine Number 15"

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CHILDREN'S TELEVISION 



WORKSHOP- MARCH 1985 • 51.75 



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THE WORLD OF COMPUTERS AND NEW TECHNOLOGY 



COMPUTERS 
IN SPACE 

What Happens When the 
Shuttle's Computers Break Down? 



PRINTERS 

A Buyers' Guide 









^fm. 



mm. 




Tcxlay, there :ire more Apples in 
schools than any other computer. 

UnfortunateK', tliere ;ire still more 
kids in schools than Apples. 

So innocent youngsters (like \'our 
own) may have to fend off packs of bully 
nerds to get some time on a computer. 

Which is why it makes good sense 
to bu\' them an Apple" flc i^rsonal Com- 
puter of their ver\'o\VTi. 

llie lie is just like the leading 
computer in education, the Apple lie. 
Only smaller. Alwut the size of a tliree- 
ring notebook, to be exact, 

Of course, since the lie is the 



legitimate offepring of tlie He, it can which yon might be interested in yourself 
access the worlds largest libraiy of educa- For exami:ile, 3-in-l integrated 

tional software. Everything from Stick}'- btisiness software. Home accounting and 

bear Shapes™ for preschooler to SAT test tax programs. Diet and fitness programs. 




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Or leant lojiy. ()r m-ii U-iini somelhitiji slightly mm mIiwimI Like miillimriuhle caleuliis. 

preparation programs for college hopefiils. Not to mention ftin progi'anis for 

In fact, tlie He can nin over 10,000 the whole family. Like"Genetic Majiping" 
programs in all. More than a few of and ■■Enz\Tne Kinetics!' • 



MATH MAZE OvMaw 



TOE APPLE nBASlCl 



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And tlie Apple lie comes complete 
with most everything you need to start 
computing in one box. 

Including a free 4-diskette couree 
to teach you how— when your kids get 
tired of your questions. 

As well its a long list of built-in 
features that would add about S800 to 
the cost of a smaller-minded computer. 

128K of internal memon'— twice 
the power of the average office computer 

A built-in half-high 140K disk drive 



that could drive up the price of a less- 
senior machine considerably. 

And built-in 
electronics for 
adding accesso- 
ries like a print- 
er, a modem, 
an AppleMouse 
or an extra disk 
drK'e when the 
time comes. 



In its oplioiiiil airryiiiji caw. Ik- 
Ik am inrti run imiiyfiom Iximi' 




So while vour children's shoe sizes home from school. 



and appetites continue to grow at an 
alarming rate, there's one thing you 

know can keep up witli 
them. Their Apple lie. 
To learn more 
about it, visit any 
authorized Apple deal- 
er. Or talk to your 
own computer experts. 
As soon 
is they get 




© M5 -•(ffVc Computer Inc. .■\jijik timl Ik .^ipte kijfi iire misteml tmieimirks o/.-il/ple Qmipiikr liic Stki'vkw Slxitfes e a tnukmurk i if Optimum Humiiw. Forim milkinzfil .'\lijiie dealer 
neamtjim aill(800J 538-96%. In Camuk call (800) 268-7796 or (800) 268 7637. 



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-t>i» 



Inside TORY 



^^RRRRRRRRRRRRillllimiPPPPPPPPPPPPP. 
m^m The sound you just heard was 10,000 pages being 
^^^ ripped out of ENTER. Over the last year and a half, that's 
■ I how many pages our readers have put in envelopes and 
mailed to Box 777, Ridgetield, New Jersey 

We call these pages our "Input Poll." By filling them out, you've 
helped us make ENTER a better magazine. You've also told us 
who you are. ..and the results are pretty interesting. This month, 
we thought we'd tell you a little bit about yourselves, the 200,000 
readers of ENTER. 

You probably own at least one computer — and if you don't, 
you're going to buy one soon. When the input poil began in 
October, 1983, 56 percent(%) of you had a computer at home. 
By the October, 1984 poll, 82% owned computers. Most of you 
own Commodores (about 20%), Apples (20%) and Texas 
Instrument computers (15%). There's also a lot of owners of 
TRS-80 (10%), Atari (6%), IBM (5%), Timex (3%) and Coleco 
Adam (2%) com;puters. Because you're such a varied bunch, 
we've got to provide programming for a lot of different machines. 
That keeps our Technical Editor very busy. 

You use your computer mostly to create graphics (over 60%), 
write programs (60%), do homework (35%), and word process 
(30%). Most of all, you play games on your computer (82%). 

We certainly know — from your letters and electronic mail, as 
well as the polls — that you want more buyers' guides and reviews 
in ENTER. We've added a lot of features that do just that. We've 
also learned some surprising things about you: 

More than 85% write programs in BASIC: 

Less than 10% use Logo for programming: 

69% have tried to write an original game program; 

48% buy at least one software package a month. 

This month, our poll asks a few special questions about 
bulletin boards. There's been a lot of bad publicity about kids 
and BBS's. We'd like to know what your experience has been. 
We promise to get back to you with the information — so go 
ahead and fill out Input Poll #8. You'll find it on page 39, 

Okay now. All together; 

RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRIIIIinilllllPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPPP. 



JL.^<Z 




Ira Wolf man 
Editor 



V3L 2 no i VfiflCH 1985 1 19B5 



PffWdfterNnaB Link 

CilHor Ira Wollrnai 

Art Directer j3/e Mrtalij 

Senior editor Sm Lewis 

ManaQing Eiiloi Aura Mafrero 

Teclinicsl EMor Riciwii Cbwal 

Associate idllor Palritia Beiry 

Assodste Art Dlnclor Jojn Endics 

Ccnltllmlliig Editais Chiis Celt Ber n<e DeKoven. Fiat O'lgtwio. 
Mike Eaeltiar I. David Powll Waik SulUn-Smilh. Phil Wsvell 

Mfesf Coral ftfMrSusan Meyecs 

tutorial Cmisiillanlt Ancre* Gulelle. Daniel E Cohn 



RCSCARiyi 

Researcii Direclotipublleations Istar Sctrdagei Ph D 
Heseartlitr Andes hffraiai;^ 

BUSISESS 

SasioBss Manager MPnQ Colson 

Citeulalion Director Lynn Russolillo 

fuMWnienf Manfffw Lucille Friedman 

Promotion Manager Ehzabetti McNamara 

Pmdaellon DIrtcloi Carlos N. Crosbie 

AsalstaritProdinllon Manager Kalhy Lee 

ADVERTISINC SAl£S 

Advertlsins Director MjIej Grossman 
Advertising Represenlative Jane A&rarrr 
Advertising Coordinator leim ?aiaiio 

ADVISORS 

Presldenllliilaraclln Sciences, Inc. Joan Tarj 

AutliarlCdaeatorDmiel H Wall. PfiD 

Youth Adtisors £r c Sabinct Eli^abeOi Di5r». Cyninia Eliss. 

Belli Gtieie Suianna HeiKhon. Dan Uanon. Biilip Millwood. 

Scon Rose. Bell SdetKt): Gisg Tramman 

CHIWRES'S TELEVISION WORKSHOP 

President Joan Ganz Ci3onc/ 

CieculheVice PnsldeotDar.ayB Brill 

PresldeotlCTW Products Croup William F Whalcy 

Vice President and General Counsel Cfiriaophet W Coogallon 

Vice PresidentlEieci/tlve ProducerDi>«{i D Connell 

Wee Presldentifinance and Admlnislrallari C Sue Cushman 

VlcePretidenllComrnuoily Edacallon Services Erelyn P Dw s 

VicePresidentlPatlicAltairsmfi: A Haich 

Wee PresidentiProducllon Altieo Hyslop 

Vice PresidentlPeriodkals Croup Nm B Link 

Vice PresldenllCompiiler Soltmare Group Ruber I Made! 

Wee Presldenll Research Kei'ii Mieike, Ph 

VkePresldentlSenior Research Fellow Oi EttwardL Paliret. Pro 



ABVERTISWGSAUS OFFICE 

M^Ib Grossran 
Advertising Oireclor 

ENTER Uamire 

1 Lincoln Pto 

He* rork. NY 10G23 

(2121 595-3^56 

Applied 'or membeistiip, Audil Bureau o( Clrojlaliorrs 



ENTER it ■ pirbliEallHi of the Ghllijr«n'i TelevtdGn WDrliiliop. Ore Lhcali 
Pluj, New York, New York 10023: pubtithed insnllily. eicept tor Auguti mi 
Februiry. lAiltime 2 Number S, Mirck : 19$5 Chililren't TeffviiiGn WorkiiiDp. 
All righli reie ryel Ho OBlurii nwlrt rf pitalH WH]V«1 HrrrluiDn ot he 
r^hildrcn I TtlnliiM WDrtHac. HITEH It ) trMcnHMi i< tit Criildrtn's 
Televlijoi itfQiki.li DO. A|ipllaljMt9nullftt«9fitlclHtt»UgflT8teiE 

GerdiioatNeii«York.N.r..an4Bl iddillonil milllna ofltcet- Prinlvd in the 
.5 A. Emiorlal oBicei. 1 llrcoln Pliii , New York, N.Y 1PPI3, POSTWASTER: 
Seriil arldreii Ekanges to: ENTER , One Dlik Drive, P.O. BDi 7fiS6. SoyldBi. CO 
iiU2i llnUuHe label Irom imei). Subicrlpligni: I year: U.St. SI4.9!. 
Canidt and other tcuntriei S72.9S 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



MENU 

A fJi MARCH 1985 



FEA TU R ES 



COMPUTERS IN SPACE 18 

Meet Astronaut Anna Fisher and the 
computer experts at Mission Control 
as they battle the "Dreaded DiPS 
MALF." 




GAMES GONE GONZO 22 

Last year, we challenged you to come up with ideas for 
outrageous arcade games. Now, the winners. 

CURSOR, FOILED AGAIN! 42 

You're trapped inside a computer with the evil Cursor on your 
trail. Can you escape? Find out by playing this new game. 

COMPUTER CAMPING, 1985 47 

Will you be computing by the campfire this summer? Or are 
there better ways for you to learn about computers? 

PRINTER POWER 52 

Get the hard facts about hard copy as ENTER looks at today's 
most popular lower cost printers, 

BILL BUDGE, SOFTWARE STAR 56 

Pinball Construction Set's creator reveals his plans for helping 
you create the ultimate computer game. 



DIGITAL DOLPHINS 

We can talk with the animals. Find out how computers are 
making a splash in efforts to communicate with dolphins. 



60 




mmmmm 



VOLUME 2. NUMBER 5 



DEPA RTM E NTS 




BITS: A byte of news briefs. 


4 


USER VIEWS: Computer game 
reviews. 


6 


SOFTWARE SCANNER: 

New educational software 
reviews. 


8 


NEWSBEAT: Hardware & 
software news. 


10 


SHOWBEAT: High-tech 
entertainment info. 


12 


PACESETTERS: Real whiz kids. 


14 


CONNECTIONS: News to use 


16 


RANDOM ACCESS: Our kids 
column. 


35 


PROGRAMMING 




ENTER CENTER: Your hands-on , 25 
pull-out programming section. 
Featuring BASIC Training programs 
for 9 computers. Ask ENTER, Pencil 
Crunchers, Feedback and more. 

Cover: Photo courtesy of NASA 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



Bits 



ENGLISH LESSON 




Cricket isn't the only popular 
game in England. We discovered 
this while looking through the Brit- 
ish computer game magazine, TV 
Gamer Here are some real — and 
very unique — British games: 

• Bed Bugs — In this game, 
you're in bed battling bugs with a 
sponge, a telephone and a sand- 
wich. The magazine reviewer 
didn't do too well; "My fastidious 
concern for breadcrumbs and 
jam on bed clothes might account 
for my low score." 

• Metagalactic Llamas turns 
you into a laser-shooting llama 
that battles interstellar spiders. 
The game, says the reviewer, "is 
bound to appeal to some hard- 
ened shoot-'em-up fanatics." 

• Bath Time — This game puts 
you in charge of the water level in 
a bath tub. If it gets too low, the 
fish flounder. If it gets too high, the 
swans fly away Your enemies: a 
water-bearing little boy and a 
thirsty elephant. "All in all, " says 



the reviewer, "a good graphics 
game, very easy to play with 
good, catchy tunes throughout." 

Unfortunately — or maybe for- 
tunately? — not one of these 
games is scheduled for release in 
the U.S. 

We wondered what it would be 
like to be a laser- shooting llama. 



■ ■ »- 



VIDEO VARSITY 



Who said video games aren't 
team sports? Howard Pearlmutter 
has created a 32-player version 
of the Atari-Lucasfilm game, 
BallBlazer. 

Pearlmutter head of The 
Knoware Institute of Technology in 
Santa Cruz, California, had a 
"soldering party" at a recent 
computer convention. He hooked 
up 32 joysticks to a single game 
machine so that everyone could 
play at once. High-tech handball 
became a team endeavor 

Pearlmutter's effort landed him 
in the record books. The previous 
record for joysticks hooked up to 
one computer was only 14. Heck, 
you can't even play baseball with 
14 people. 
■ ■ ■ 

MAKING THE GRADE 

You studied hard, read all the 
assignments, did your homework 
and even participated in class. So 
what happens? You failed all your 
classes. What do you do? 

Blame it on the computer. That's 
what more than 6,000 students in 
Albuquerque, New fVlexico did. 
And they weren't just trying to 



avoid the wrath of their parents. 
It really was the computer's fault. 
The wrong list of students was 
programmed into the computer 
when the machine was printing 
out failing grades, according to 
Joseph Perno of the Albuquerque 
schools. What did the computer 
do? Blamed the programmer 
■ ■ ■ 

CAPrrOL IDEA 

A robot in Congress? Well, they 
may never get elected, but they 
are in Washington, D.C. 

RoPet-HR and Maxx Steele are 
two mechanical marvels who've 
been seen around the nation's 




capitol. RoPet-HR showed up 
before the House of Repre- 
sentatives' Committee on Aging to 
show how robots can assist senior 
citizens. RoPet-HR can detect 
intruders and set off alarms, 

fvleanwhile, a two-foot-tall Maxx 
Steele robot drew attention to 
"National High Tech Week" by 
delivering a resolution to the White 
House, Will we soon be reading 
"All the President's Robots"? 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



■ ■ ■ 

WATER WATCHER 

Your hands are soapy and slip- 
pery. You won't be able to turn the 
faucet to rinse them off. But, as 
your hands move towards the sink, 
the water comes on automatically. 

Hey, is this one of those TV 
practical joke shows? 

You look around for a hidden 
camera. But instead you find an 
electronic eye, Yes, you've en- 
tered the age of high-tech hand 
washing. This automatic faucet, 
called the Optima, is made by the 
Sloan Valve Co. of Franklin Park, 
Illinois. The electronic'eye puts 
out an invisible beam of light that 
detects approaching hands. 


When the hands are in range, the 
water goes on. 

It's not as good as getting on 
TV, but it does rinse the soap off 
your hands. 


found that: 

• 78 percent of the students 
discovered that learning to use 
the computer took longer than 
they thought it would; 

• 76 percent felt "over- 
whelmed" by the amount of work 
they had to do for computer class; 

• Many discovered that the 
computer had become the center 
of their schedule. "1 have to 
arrange everything else around 
computer time," said one student. 

And to think, you probably knew 
all this even before the study was 
done. B 


PROOF POSITIVE 

No one had to conduct a 
scientific study to tell you that 
learning to use computers can be 
difficult. But they did the study 
anyway. 

Researchers at Carnegie- 
Mellon University in Pittsburgh 
interviewed 250 beginning 
computer users to find out just 
how tough it was to use the 
school's computers. According to 
researcher Lee Sproull. the study 


We want BITS! If we use your news, you 
get an ENTER T-shirt. Send news items to: 
"Bits Editor," ENTER. ? Lincoln Plaza. N. Y. 
NY. 10023 



THIS IS THE REASON YOU OWN A HOME COMPUTER. 



****SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE 
* * * * FAMILY COMPUTING MAGAZINE 




Discover a better way to learn while you play, at a new, low price. 

Learning and entertainment are probably the reasons you bought a home 
computer. We've created a new, unique hardware/soltware system, like 
nothing ever produced lor home computers, that satislies those two 
motivations. It's called PQ, The Party Quiz Game. 
Included in each package are tour special controllers (one lor each player), a 
program disk and General Edition I disk containing 2700 questions cover- 
ing a variety o( subjects. PQ's Question/Answer Library 16 optional 
packages! expands the total number ol questions to over 18,000. 
PQ asks the players a question; all are allowed to respond at once. Points 
are awarded for correct answers which are displayed on screen after a 
time elapses. All age and education levels, from reading age on up, 
can play thanks to PQ's "handicap" feature. 
Find out for yourself why Party Qm> gets 4 star ratings. 
Call today at 1B00-323-834I to find PQ near you. 

The Party Quiz Game" 
Family Learning System 

,•■ 

Includes Four Controllers & Software lor Apple II series, 
m ^ Commodore 64 & Atari Computers 



Suncom 



2ea Hollrmi Or. Wl«.vl,„.j. 

1180090 1800323 8341 

III I 312 43980001 




hmViEws 



NEW COMPUTER GAMES 



BYPHILWISWELLAND 

BERNIEDEKOVEN 



-♦♦♦- 



FAHRENHEIT 451 

(Trillium /Spinnaker, Apple II series, 
$39.95: Commodore 64. $32.95} 

This interactive fiction software 
is not as good as the book of the 
same name. And it's not as good 
as the movie of the same name. 
But it is filled with the wonderful 
prose of sci-fi author Ray Brad- 
bury, who wrote the book. And it is 
a story that kept drawing us back 
for more. 

Fahrenfieit 451 is a graphic ad- 
venture game that displays each 
scene with a small picture and 
text. Player command is a prob- 
lem, since you are limited to two- 
word commands like WALK 
NORTH or READ SIGN. But 
you still can elicit a wealth of re- 
sponses. Bradbury did a stellar 
job of saying a lot with a little. 

Fahrenheit 451 offers much to 
explore. There are dimly lit alleys, 
but few dead ends. And even 
though this adventure game world 
is very dangerous, your character 
will not be killed for every mistake 
you make. 

Each step you take in Fahren- 
heit 451 Ue\psf\\\ in pan 
of the story. And the plot is com- 
pelling. You are in the future, on 
New York City's Fifth Avenue, 
hunted by mechanical hounds 
and members of the 451 Corps, 
Your only hope is to contact mem- 
bers of the underground 
movement. Where will you find 



them? That's the adventure. 

WRAP-UP 
BERNIE: Graphics and sound 
weren't great, but this is a superb 
game. 

PHIL: I turned off the pictures after 
the first time. They just make 
gameplay slower 

♦♦♦ 

ROBOT ODYSSEY I 

(The Learning Company, Apple II, $49.95) 

It is difficult to define Robot 
Odyssey I. The best we can do is 
this: a graphic-educational-ad- 
venture-game-robot-construction 
kit. This software is deep and fun. 
In many ways, it is an extension of 
The Learning Company's Rocl<y's 
Boots. In that game, the user de- 
signs, builds, and tests circuits. 

In this program, you get much 
deeper into circuitry design. You 
actually use your design skills to 
program different robots to solve 
an adventure game, The object of 
the adventure is to maneuver 
through the five levels of 
Robotropolis and return to the real 
world. Each level of the robot- 
populated city requires more so- 
phisticated circuit design. It's fun 
to watch your robots doing what 
you programmed them to do. 

WRAP-UP 
PHIL: I think it's great that you have 
to design your own inventions 
to get anywhere in this game. 
As your skill at circuit design in- 
creases so does your progress. 
BERNIE: I call this game "Rooky's 
Gloves" because you can do so 
much more with it than with 
Rooky's Boots. 



-♦♦♦- 



GHOSTBUSTERS 



(Activision, Commodore 64, Apple II 
series. Atari, $34.95) 

The theme music, which ptays 
through Ghostbusters' introduc- 
tory screen, is worth half the price 
of admission. Unfortunately, the 
game isn't deep enough to be 
worth the other half. 

Ghostbusters divides into three 
segments. You begin by selecting 
equipment and a car. With your 
vehicle equipped, you find your- 
self on a map of the city prowling 
for ghosts. Your object? To protect 
the Temple of Zuul from ghosts. 

On the map, you will see ghosts 
approaching the Temple. You can 
temporarily halt their progress by 
passing over them. Then the 
screen switches to a close-up of 
your car on a three-lane street, 
Here you pass frozen ghosts. If 
you have a ghost vacuum, you'll 
capture them. 

At the ghost-infested building 
you place the ghost trap, position 
two ghostbusters, switch on the 
negative ionizers, and set the 
trap. Make a mistake and your 
ghostbuster gets "slimed." It's al- 
most worth getting slimed to hear 
the game's great voice synthesis 
cry, "He slimed me!" 
WRAP-UP 
BERNIE: I liked selecting the funny 
gadgetry, and the ghostbusting. 
But this feels like parts of different 
games rather than one whole 
game. 

PHIL: The driving part bothered 
me. There wasn't enough strategy 
required. 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



-♦♦♦- 



SPY vs. SPY 

(First Star Software, Atari /Commodore 
combined disk, &9.95; 
Apple II series, $34.95) 

This one- or two-player game is 
not easy to learn. But it's really 
worth the extra effort. 

The game is played in two doz- 
en rooms of an embassy 
Memorizing the floorplan won't 
help, since the rooms change 
from game to game. The object is 
to find a briefcase, fill it with the 
objects of spydom — passport, 
money secret plans — and make 
a getaway. To do this, you must 
not only outrun the other spy, 
but also outfox him. These spies, 
from Mad Magazine, will do any- 
thing to stop each other. 

Ttie outstanding feature of Spy 
vs. Spy is the split screen that lets 
you view your moves and your 
opponent's moves. You have to 
move fast, and also keep an eye 
on what the other spy is doing. 

WRAP-UP 
PHIL: The gameplay is wonderful, 
and the game is funny 
BERNIE: I found you can master 
the difficult joystick control by 
playing the part of both spies. 

♦♦♦ 

BREAKDANCE 

(Epyx; Commodore 64, around $35.) 

We can't find much to like about 
this software. The music, which is 
the heart of the game, isn't very 
good, Graphics are okay 

Using a joystick, you put your 
breakdancer through five different 
kinds of moves, In the first game, 
you repeat an ever-lengthening 
series of moves made by a com- 
puter breaker. In the second 



game, a crowd of breakers try to 
push you into the river Your task is 
to "eliminate" each one by imitat- 
ing his moves. In the third game, 
you play against the computer's 
best breaker. And in the fourth 
game, you combine all three of 
the first games in the series. 
We did like the fifth game, 
which is really an activity You 
choreograph your own dance and 
play it back. Perhaps the whole 
game should have been like this. 

WRAP-UP 
PHIL: If this were the last game for 
the C-64, 1 don't know if I'd play 
BERNIE: The music gets annoying 
and the games get boring. 

♦♦♦ 

CUUHROATS 

(Inlocom, Apple It series, Macintosh, Atari, 

Commodore 64, TI99/4A, 

IBM and compatibles) 

This new Infocom all-text ad- 
venture is a real winner. As 
always, the Infocom sentence par- 
ser (the program that interprets 
your commands) is superb, allow- 
ing complex commands. The 
game realSy shivered our timbers. 

Cutttiroats takes place 
in a small seaport town on Hard- 
scrabble island. It's a town filled 
with — you guessed it — cut- 
throats. You've got a map of the 
four shipwrecks around the is- 
land. Still, you need help. The only 
characters who seem able to help 
you are the island's thugs. 

WRAP-UP 
BERNIE: It's a very good text ad- 
venture. But I'm not sure I like 
Infocom spending so much time 
and money on the extra props— 
the map, the tide table. 
PHIL: I disagree. These props are 
half the fun of an Infocom game. 
(Conlinued on page 41} 




ROBOT ODYSSEY I 




GHOSTBUSTERS 




SPY VS. SPY 




BREAKDANCE 



MARCH 1965 



ENTER 



£y£ji 



'SoFTWABE Scanner 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE REVIEWS 




DREAM HOUSE 




Wf=T^ 



py L^ C^ft^fifc o>r> CfcB^B^ 



iH^iai 



Dp 



COLORTONE KEYBOARD 



BYHILDEWEISERT 

i7i7£7 



PRESIDENT'S CHOICE 

(Spinnaker; Apple It series. IBM PC and 
PCjf. Commodore 64: disk. $39.95) 

It's not easy being President- — 
at least not when you're playing 
President's Choice, a simulation 
game for one player As you enter 
the Oval office, "Hail to the Chief" 
plays and you are suddenly faced 
with decisions, decisions, deci- 
sions.. .presidential problems that 
you have to solve! 

You'll like President's Choice 
best if the politica! bug has al- 
ready bitten you. As you decide 
whether to get price supports for 
butter or more guns for the Army, 
you get a good idea of how many 
factors a president must weigh 
before reaching a policy decision. 

Even if you aren't yet a political 
pundit, you still can learn a lot. 
You can even get help by calling 
on the software's buiit-in presi- 
dential advisors. Call political 
advisors by pressing the "?" key 
Get information from your Council 
of Economic Advisors by pressing 
the "$" key These advisors will 
supply charts and graphs about 
inflation, unemployment, and your 
popularity in the polls, They'll help 
you submit budgets, make import- 
ant choices — and even help you 
run for re-election, 

Whether or not you're interested 
in politics, this software will make 
you want to know more about how 
the presidency works. Unfortun- 
ately, only three references are 
listed with the software. 



Still, President's Choice does let 
you act as if you are living in the 
White House. It even offers advan- 
tages a real president doesn't 
have. 

For instance, if you get tired 
of being president, you can save 
your place on a formatted disk. 
And if you're weary of making the 
same old decisions, you can boot 
up a second "Scenarios" disk 
filled with all new issues. 



-ana- 



Emm COLORS 

(Computer Colorworks; Apple II series, 

Commodore 64; disk. $39.95 

Apple version witti printer program, 

$69.95) 

Flying Colors has features you 
don't usually get all in one graph- 
ics program. First, it works with 
joystick, paddles, trackball or 
touchpad. Second, it lets you 
create and save your own "slide 
tray" of pictures. You can, for in- 
stance, fade from one shot into 
the next. (This program is as 
smoothly flexible as the slide pro- 
jector part of separate packages 
like Koala's Graphics Exhibitor.) 
Third, the $69.95 version of this 
program lets you print "slide 
trays" of your pictures. 

In addition, Flying Colors has 
easy-to-follow menus and a solid 
manual that helps you get the 
most out of this software. 

It is a program with a lot of 
options, but one big drawback. 
Flying Colors is only fair as a 
basic painting program. It lacks 
options like move, copy and mirror 
and allows only modest detail 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



WJ£y£7 



work. That flaw takes away from 
otherwise admirable software. 



-aaiJ- 



DREAMHOUSE 

(CBS: Apple series, Commodore 64; 
disk. $39.95) 

An electronic dollhouse? Didn't 
you give that kind of thing up 
years ago? 

I wondered why anyone over 
the age of six would want to play 
Dreamhcuse. So I asked some 
friends to try out this software. 
Rachel (age 12), Joseph (13) and 
Bonnie (30 + ) all played happily 
for hours. 

Dreamhouse is a joystick- 
controlled design program where 
you change, decorate and color 
any of four houses. You begin by 
checking out floorplans and 
choosing a house. 

Rachel liked the colonial farm- 
house. Joseph chose the 
penthouse. Bonnie liked the hide- 
away cottage. Rachel and Joseph 
were soon using the picture- 
menus to skip from screen to 
screen. (Bonnie needed the man- 
ual, which should have had a 
table of contents.) 

fvly program testers picked up 
birdcages and couches and trees 
from the "storage screens" and 
dropped them in clever places. 
They painted rooms in all of the 16 
colors you can choose on the 
Commodore. When the houses 
were done, my friends did one of 
two things. Either they saved the 
house on a disk, or they hit the 
"animate" command, which made 
dogs wag their tails and washing 
machines spin noisily 

Dreamhouse has flaws. Color 
fills sometimes have have odd 
edges. Some screen items are too 
small to see. But Dreamhouse 



also has lots of surprises and doz- 
ens of rooms to explore . It's a high- 
tech way to play house. 
una- 

MISSION: ALGEBRA 



(DesignWare: Apple II series. IBM PC, 

PCjr and compatibles, Atari, 

Commodore 64; disk, $44.95) 

There are two things Mission: 
Algebra isn't. It isn't a way to learn 
all of algebra. And, despite its title 
and the spaceship picture on the 
package, it's not an adventure 
game. 

But if you want to practice 
solving linear equations and plot- 
ting x,y, pairs on a graph, I think 
you'll like this game. 

You're the pilot of a rescue craft 
searching for a lost sister ship. 
Clues have been left behind — a 
trail of linear equations like Y -i- 7 
= -1X-I-10, (A trail of bread- 
crumbs would have been easier 
to follow, but you wouldn't learn 
as much.) 

You start your "mission" in a 
"workspace" screen, where you 
solve the equations. Then you go 
to a "graph" screen, where you 
plot x,y values. Solve the equa- 
tions, plot the points and you 
rescue the other ship. 

Unlike some tutorial programs. 
Mission: Algebra lets you solve 
problems in as many steps as it 
takes. A fanfare sounds when you 
solve a problem correctly A buzz 
signals mistakes, and is followed 
by a message that tells what you 
did wrong. 

Still having trouble? Just press 
the "H" key to call your on-line 
algebra tutor This screen will re- 
mind you about basic rules and 
give you hints about the solution. 
If you're still confused, hit "C" for 
the solution. 



Like other DesignWare pro- 
grams, this one has a good 
demonstration screen and user's 
manual. The screen prompts are 
also well thought out and helpful. 
If algebra is a 12-chapter book, 
Mission: Algebra is only Chapter 
2. But Chapter 2 is important, and 
this program hits the mark. 

ijacf 

COLORTONE KEYBOARD 

(Wavelorm; Commodore 64; disk and 
keyboard, $79.95) 

This keyboard and software 
package can make anybody 
sound good. It lets you play nine 
different instrument-sounds and 
record with 13 different song ac- 
companiments. Best of all, it 
blocks out sour notes. 

First, plug the two-octave 
piano-like keyboard peripheral 
into your joystick port. Then load 
the program disk. The screen dis- 
play is great! At the top of the 
screen, pictures explain the Key- 
board's menu keys. Mid-screen, 
colorful notes from your melody 
march across treble and bass 
clefs. At the bottom of the screen, 
the keyboard is shown with letter 
names. As you play, a red dot 
highlights the key you've hit. 

There are some shortcomings; 
storage space is limited if you 
want to save your tunes and the 
keyboard is a flat "membrane" 
that's not as much fun to play as 
real piano keys. 

Still, this package is like a new- 
wave version of an old-time player 
piano. It encourages you to make 
music and have fun — and that 
can be great way to learn about 
music. H 

HILDE WEISERT is an educational con- 
sultant and freelance writer 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 




EDITED BY RICHARD CHEVAT 



KIDS HIT AT 'BITS' SHOW 



Bits & Bytes: Products got a workout at the first k\6s' computer show. 



Put thousands of kids, dozens 
of computer companies, 
and an assortment of robots, 
computers and software in a liuge 
room and what do you get? 

"Bits and Bytes: The First Na- 
tional Computer Show for Kids," 
that's what. 

This three-day conference, at- 
tended by nearly 15,000 people, 
took place at the Disneyland Hotel 
in Anaheim, California, last De- 
cember. The show featured work- 
shops led by teenagers, and 
hands-on demonstrations of hard- 
ware, software and robots. 

Speakers included teenage 
programming whizzes Will {Music 
Construction Set) Harvey and 
Cory Kosack, and TV actor and 
former star of Whiz Kids, Jeffrey 
Jacquet. The "Kid Keynote" 
speech ("Is There Life After Joy- 



sticks?") was given by 12-year-old 
"Vid Kid" Rawson Stovall, author 
of a syndicated newspaper col- 
umn about video games. Raw- 
son's conclusion: there is, indeed, 
life after joysticks. 

More than 30 computer com- 
panies — including Apple, IBf\/t, 
Spinnaker, Mindscape, Radio 
Shack, CBS Software, Weekly 
Reader Software and Commo- 
dore — had exhibits at the show. 
IBM's booth featured a stylish 
"old-time" factory, with company 
representatives dressed in factory 
worker aprons and 1930-style 
caps. The booth's special guest 
star was actor Billy Scudder, who 
plays the Charlie Chaplin 
character in IBM ads. Scudder 
didn't speak, but tweaked a 
squeaker and signed autographs 
throughout the show. 




At other booths, new products 
were unveiled. Mindscape show- 
ed off Indiana Jones and ttie 
Temple of Doom, its new graphic 
adventure game. Sierra and Walt 
Disney Computer Software dis- 
played three new software 
programs. Most notable was 
Mickey's Space Adventure, a 
graphic adventure game written 
by Sierra's Roberta Williams (au- 
thor of Kings' Quest) and starring 
none other than Disney's #1 
Mouse — the Mick himself. 

Show organizers Cliff Mitchell 
and Douglas Mitchell judged their 
kid-oriented computer show a 
success, "We had good atten- 
dance by educators, parents and 
kids," said Doug Mitchell, "The 
companies that attended seemed 
very pleased. They came to the 
show because Bits and Bytes 
offered them a chance to see their 
products tested under battlefield 
conditions. Kids here gave them a 
good workout." Mitchell an- 
nounced that a similar show is 
being planned for 1985 in Dallas, 
Texas. There should be one sig- 
nificant change, he suggests. 
"We expect the companies to 
make their displays more 'kid- 
compatible." 

DIAL A GAME?: That's exactly what 
you can do with the new Master- 
line subscription service from the 
Control Video Corporation. Each 
month, this software-by-phone 
service will offer it subscribers 20 
programs from leading software 
publishers, Some of the first 
month's selections included Hard 
Hat Mack by Electronic Arts, Sil- 
icon Warrior by Epyx and 



10 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



■ 


- - - - - 




MasterType by Scarborough. 


from Earth gravity to lunar gravity. 


processing software. This soft- 




For $20 a month, you can dial 


That means youll soar past your 


ware helps you create detailed 




Masterline and download a pro- 


opponents. Unless, of course. 


outlines that can turn mountains 




gram into your Commodore 64 or 


they read ENTER and know the 


of jumbled notes into a pyramid of 




Apple II. Then you just hang up 


secret, too. 


clear ideas. 




and play away. But you can't save 




To begin, you enter topic head- 




the program on a disk or tape. As 






ings into your computer For 




soon as you turn off the computer, 




BB!^^^^'<Qii^}^3SUHH||^H^^H 


instance, you may be writing a 




the game is gone. 




1^^ ^j^^<i»5jv<, "'^^^'^^^ 


paper that has sections on cave- 




Right now, Masterline is only 








men, plant life, dishware and 




available for Apple and Commo- 




••^^^ 




musical instruments. By creating 




dore owners in Houston, Atlanta, 






these headings, you create a file 




Los Angeles, and Washington, 
D.C. If it's a hit, other cities and 
computers will be added. For 
more info, contact Control Video 








for each topic. As you gather 
information on cavemen, plant life, 
dishware and musical instru- 
ments, you enter this information 






Commodore 128: An upgraded CM. 














Corporation, 8620 Westwood 


FLASH.,.FmSH... FLASH... 


under the correct heading. 




Center Drive, Vienna, VA 22180. 


COMMODORE INTRODUCES THE 


When you're ready to organize 






C-128: What's twice as powerful as 


your report, you don't have to 




OLYMPIC REVIVAL: You can't keep 


the Commodore 64? The new 


move each scrap of information 




a good game down. HESGames 


Commodore 128, unveiled at the 


piece by piece. You simply shift 




(for the Commodore-64) from 


Consumer Electronics Show in 


headings. All the notes in that file 




HESWare was Olympic-inspired 


Las Vegas. The 128 is exactly 


move along with it. Idea process- 




software that hit the best-seller 


what it sounds like— an upgraded 


ing software also lets you quickly 




chart almost immediately (And 


version of the C-64. It comes with 


shift screens, moving from gener- 




got a very good review in the July/ 


128K RAM and is expandable to 


al topic headings to specific 




August 1984 issue of ENTER.) But 


512K. 


information contained in each 




then HESWare ran into some 


The C-128 is fully compatible 


file. 




problems and stores stopped or- 


with the 64. so there is already lots 


"With idea [processing] soft- 




dering the game. 


of software available for it. With its 


ware, it's easier to organize what 




Enter Michael Crick of 3-2-1 


increased memory, the C-128 will 


you want to write," says Dan 




Software, Inc. Crick, who created 


be able to handle many new pro- 


Lhamon, 14, an ENTER youth ad- 




the game for HESWare, didn't 


grams that wouldn't fit on the 


visor. Dan says he's used this 




want to see his game disappear. 


older model. (It is not compatible, 


software to create outlines and 




So he bought back the rights to 


however, with the other new Com- 


papers for some of his classes at 




the game and has started selling 


modore machines, the C-16 and 


school. 




it independently. That's not all. 


the Plus/4.) 


Right now this new kind of soft- 




He's selling an enhanced version 


Commodore hadn't set a price 


ware is available for the IBM PC 




of HESGames (now retitled 


on the 128 when we went to press. 


and includes such products as 




S-Games) for $14.95—520 less 


They did say it would be available 


ThinkTank from Living Videotext. 




than the original price. S-Games 


with a disk drive and a dot-matrix 


Inc. of Mountain View, California, 




Olympics includes even more fea- 


printer for under $1 .000. That 


THOR (short for Thought 




tures than the HESGames 


might make it very competitive 


Organizer) from Fastware of East 




version, including a starter's voice 


with two other 128K computers: 


Orange, N.J. and KAMAS (for 




("On your mark, get set, go!") on 


Apple's lie and IBM's PCjr. 


Knowledge And Mind Amplifica- 




running events, and a secret 




tion System) from Compusophic 




surprise on the long jump. 


IDEAS UNUMITED: If you've ever 


of Aloha, Oregon. 




We can't keep secrets, so here 


had to write a school report about 


if the idea catches on, you're 




it is: If you press the F5 key on 


the "History of The World"— or 


likely to see more idea processing 




your C-64 just before starting the 


some other enormous topic — 


software for a wider variety of 




long jump, you change the event 


you'll want to know about idea 


computers. B 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



11 




EDITED BY PATRICIA BERRY 



COMPUTERS IN THE 'CAULDRON' 




Oisney artists drew on computer power to help with the "Black Cauldron." 



Dragons, sorcerers and the 
Horned King have some- 
thing special planned for 
you this summer. 

Don't worry. These stars of The 
Black Cauldron, a new animated 
movie of medieval mayhem, aren't 
about to turn you into a newt. But 
they will show you what happens 
when animation artists team up 
with the latest computer tech- 
nology 

Wait Disney's studio has been 
making animated films for more 
than 50 years. In the past few 
years. Disney has toyed with com- 
puters in movies like The Black 
Hole and Tron. But Cauldron 
marks the first time the studio has 
combined animation with state-of- 
the-art technology, 

The Black Cauldron is the story 
of the evil Horned King. The King 
wants to possess the destructive 



powers of a huge, dark, myste- 
rious kettle— the Cauldron itself. 
Only a young pigkeeper named 
Taran and the princess Eilonwy 
stand between the Horned King 
and his prize, 

This animated fantasy took Dis- 
ney five years to make. All of the 
characters and most other mov- 
ing objects were done by hand by 
Disney's staff of artists, But com- 
puters helped with the animation 
of solid objects, and with the film- 
ing process itself. 

On many scenes, a com- 
puterized device, appropriately 
called the Animators' Helper 
System, assisted the artistic staff. 
The Animators' Helper improved 
and speeded up the work, ac- 
cording to Cauldron's producer, 
Joe Hale. "In one scene, we have 
a boat that Taran and Eilonwy 
escape in," says Hale. "First, the 



boat's just sitting in the water. But 
when the kids get in, it tips with 
their weight, and balances again. 

"It takes a very long time to 
make that kind of movement look 
real by hand-drawing each 
frame," Hale explains. "If it's not 
done precisely, you get a kind of 
rubbery look instead of a fluid 
movement." But with the com- 
puter, animators simply had to 
input the dimensions of the boat, 
its various angles, and the direc- 
tions in which it was to move. The 
computer then printed outlines for 
each position of the boat. 

The computer can do some 
fancy work that hand-drawn ani- 
mation can't. But Disney's 
animators didn't want to use the 
full power of the computer For 
example, in the boat scene, the 
computer drawings could show 
three dimensions of the boat, in- 
cluding the inside ribs that you 
wouldn't normally see. But that 
would have looked very different 
than the rest of the animation. "So 
we traced only the part you'd see 
from the front," explains Hate, "for 
the painters to fill in later" 

In the filming process, com- 
puters helped Disney artists 
create depth of field, This is very 
difficult to achieve in the two-di- 
mensional world of animation, By 
using a multiplane camera with 
precisely timed computer-control- 
led exposures, the filmmakers 
were able to get an image that 
seemed deeper and more lifelike. 

Yet while computers have 
proved very helpful, there are cer- 
tain aspects of animated 
filmmaking that are off-limits to 
these machines. For instance, 



12 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



says Hale, "we don't use the com- 
puter to add color [to the 
animation]. We do all ttiat by 
hand. We even grind our own pig- 
ments," 

Computers also do not play a 
part in creating the studio's mem- 
orable animated characters, 
Disney animators pride them- 
selves on creating life-like 
characters— like the Horned 
King and Taran— out of pen, pa- 
per and paint, 

"While [the computer] is great 
for animating solid, geometric ob- 
jects that have [little or no] human 
characteristics, ! doubt if the com- 
puter wilf ever be used tor 
animating personality," says Hale, 
"The computer can save thou- 
sands of hours for us, but it's just a 
tool," he concludes. "The real 
work is done by the artists. A 
computer will never replace them," 

DETENTION DETERRENT: A com- 
puter plays matchmaker in a CBS 
Schoolbreak Special, The Day the 
Senior Class Got Married. The 
show, scheduled to air March 5, 
tells the story of a senior high 
economics class. As a final proj- 
ect before graduation, the seniors 
have to simulate the dollars and 
cents of married life,, .in pairs. Of 
course, the students can't pick 
their own mates. They have to 
hand in questionnaires so the 
computer, programmed by their 
teacher (Paul Dooley, the actor 
who played the father in Breaking 
Away), can pair them off in 
"compatible" couples. That's 
where the fun,, .and frustration.,, 
begins. 

It sure gives new meaning to 
the word homeroom. 

IF THE SHOE FITS. . . ; If Shoe has 
fits, it's probably because of his 
computer Shoe is a comic strip 




"Senior Class": Computer couples 



character, and his computer is a 
centerpiece in a bird-brained 
newsroom. 

Cartoonist Jeff MacNelly has 
been poking fun at micros for 
most of the seven years his news- 
paper comic strip— appearing in 
more than 800 papers world- 
wide—has been published. Shoe 
tells of the misadventures of a 
newspaper — the Treetops Tattler- 
Tribune — and the real birds who 
run it. One of those birds is Shoe 
or Shoemaker, the paper's editor- 
in-chief. Another star is the uppity 
computer that mistakes downtime 
for on-line on a daily basis, 

S/ioe's high-tech hijinks are in- 
spired by MacNelly's observation 
of the computers that surround 
him at work and home. Ivtany of 
the glitches he captures on the 
comics pages actually happened 



to his Chicago journalist friends 
who work with computers. 

"I understand the frustration my 
colleagues have with computers. 
But I think it's hilarious," says 
MacNelly, "I love watching them, 
'cause I'm not involved," 

MacNelly also gets some of the 
computer comedy in Shoe from 
events around his house. There's 
a good chance the young cartoon 
character, Skyler, is modelled 
after MacNelly's own 10- and 12- 
year-old sons, Danny and Jake. 
Like Skyler. MacNelly's sons love 
video games, MacNelly also likes 
video games. He says he prefers 
"the old, simple ones where 1 can 
shoot the bugs and flies and 
spaceships, stuff like Galaxian. 
Pac-Man," he says, "makes me 
nervous," 

Despite his joking, MacNelly 
claims that he "appreciates com- 
puters., ..[But] what 1 enjoy is the 
fact that these wonderful ma- 
chines have silly humans running 
them." 

Jeff MacNelly can afford to 
make light of computers, Graph- 
ics software may be getting better 
all the time, but he's convinced 
that "It's much easier to sit down 
and draw the comic strip by hand. 
And more fun," 

Ah, but think of the comic strip 
he would draw after the computer 
"ate" his day's work. Guess that's 
"Shoe" business. B 



SHOE 



BY JEFF MACNELLY 




MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



13 



'Paceseuebs 

EDITED BY JESSICA WOLFE 



FLYING WITH THE APPLE CORE: 

HOW NINE KIDS WON A COMPUTER CONTEST 




Airport Info Team: This club from Niskayuna, New York, combined 
programming and research skills to bring databases to new heights. 



yTou've just arrived at a busy 
airport in a strange city. You 
have a million things to do: 
Rent a car, find your hotel, confirm 
your return flight and claim your 
luggage. You're lost. What do you 
do? 

Thanks to a program developed 
by a Schenectady, New York, 
computer club, you might be able 
to get all this information from a 
computer terminal right at the 
airport. 

The airport information pro- 
gram, called "Albany County Air- 
port: Gateway to the World," was 
developed by the Niskayuna 
Apple Core, a club of nine 12- to 
14-year-olds. It is an easy-to-use 



database program (complete with 
some animated graphics) that 
travellers will find helpful. 

The nine club members — 
Jason Anthony Craig Becker, 
Mark Kilty, Michael Lee, Jeff 
Serowick, John Shinners, Steve 
Spraragen, Dominic Versaci and 
Chris Williams — created the pro- 
gram as an entry in Apple 
Computer Clubs' 1984 competi- 
tion. Their project was good 
enough to win $10,000 worth of 
computers from Apple. 

But the members of the club 
also ended up learning a great 
deal about building a database 
program and working together as 
a team. 



How to Organize a Database 

The club's program provides 

useful information about airline 
schedules, seating plans, hotels, 
car rentals and baggage areas. 

Creating this database took 
weeks of research and frequent 
visits to the airport. But the 
information had to be organized 
into a logical whole before the first 
line of programming could be 
written. 

"We knew we wanted five main 
sections on the program before 
we even started making trips to 
the airport," recalls club member 
Steve Spraragen, 14. One section 
was "Travel Time," which cal- 
culates the cost and time it takes 
to get to and from the airport, then 
suggests direct routes. 

A second section was "Arriving 
Traveler's Aid," which includes 
maps of the airport and the 
surrounding area. It pinpoints 
important places — departure 
gates, car rental booths, hotels, 
taxi stands, ticket counters, etc. 
Other sections include airline 
schedules and seating charts for 
various kinds of aircraft. There's 
even a section that explains 
airplane circling patterns. 

The club members spent the 
better part of five weeks at the 
airport digging up all the 
necessary Information. Craig, 
John. Michael, Jeff and Steven, 
who were assigned to do 
research, quickly became familiar 
faces around the airport as they 
collected "volumes" of notes, 
spoke to airport employees, and 
interviewed people at airlines. 



14 



ENTER 



N/IARCH 1985 













who may never have used a 


mation. writing introductions or 






^ 




computer before. To accomplish 


designing graphics. 






.J^^^ — 




this, they gave each of the five 


You might imagine that winning 










database sections its own menu 


$10,000 in computer equipment 






^^^^^^^BS^^Mk^ itit.vMi'^tf^^^l 




and instructions. A user can 


was the best part of this effort. 




j*^-- j§,:*i**^~" 






Vi_..^ ^ 




access the database by just 


That was great, admits Steven 






flLBflmj COCinTy filRPORT 




typing in answers to preprogram- 


Spraragen. But, all nine members 






GflT€UJfla TO Tfie UJORLO 




med questions. 

The finished product was a 
real team effort. Everyone was 


of the group agree, working to- 
gether was a great experience. B 




A screen from the database. 






responsible for an equal amount 


Are you a pacesetter? Have you used your 




"We made so many trips to the 


of work and each club member 


computer to do something inventive? Write 




airpori," says club advisor Angela 


had contributed something— 


a short r)ote to: Pacesetters, ENTER. 




Anthony, "that we found out things 


whether it was running around the 


1 Lincoln Plaza. New York. NY 10023. 




that the airport's manager didn't 


airport and digging up infor- 


If we write your story you'll get a T-shirt. 




even know." 


_^^„__^.^ ^ M 






ironically, one of their biggest 
problems was getting a floorplan 




w w w 

PROGRAMMING CONTEST TIPS 






of the airport, The information was 












available, but it was stored in — of 




What does it take to win a 


BE READY TO WORK. 'Never un- 
derestimate the amount of work 






all pidces! — a compuici. ueuing 




computer programming con- 






printouts, it turned out, was a 




test? Here are some tips from 


you'll need to do," cautions 






problem that tooi^ a while to 




kids who know— members of 


Steve Spraragen, This is es- 






resolve. 
Finally, all the pieces fell into 




the Niskayuna Apple Core Club, 


pecially important when the 
project involves putting togeth- 












place. Armed with enough 




PLAN OUT YOUR PROJECT CARE- 


er a data base or anything 






information to fill both sides of two 




FULLY. "Before doing anything, 


requiring a lot of information. 






floppy disks, the Apple Core 




make sure you know ahead of 








members began to create their 




time what you want to do," 








database program. 




advises Jason Anthony, 


MAKE SURE YOUR ENTRY IS 






^ A A a 




"Make sure everything is well- 


NEAT AND COMPLETE. It's impor- 






W WW 

Doing the Programming 




researched. And," he adds. 
"be persistent." 


tant to include an explanation 
of how the program works, and 










Also, try to keep track of your 


how to use it. Don't assume the 






Programming in Applesoft 




sources of information in case 


judges are going to under- 






BASIC, Jason, Chris and Craig 




you have to go back and check 


stand everything. 






wrote the database one section at 




something. 








a time. Dominick came in after 






IF MORE THAN ONE PERSON 






school every day for three weeks 




TRY TO DO SOMETHING DIF- 


WORKS ON THE PROJECT, USE 






before the contest deadline to 




FERENT Every contest has its 


EVERYONE'S SKILLS. Everyone 






give last-minute help. Mike Lee 




own criteria, but almost all 


can contribute something. One 






worked on the "Circling Patterns" 




judges are looking for the same 


or two people may be better 






section of the program. To help 




things in a winning entry: 


programmers, but others may 






with some more difficult aspects 




creativity, originality and edu- 


be better at researching, or 






of the program, additional 




cational value. If you do the 


documentation, or graphics. 






software had to be bought. To 




273rd version of a database for 








draw airport maps, the group had 




keeping track of hobbies. 


One last, but very important, 






to purchase a graphics tablet. 




you're not going to stand out. 


thing to keep in mind; have fun. 






The club members knew they'd 




Try to come up with something 


The Niskayuna Apple Core 






have to make the program simple, 




newand a little different. 


members did. 






since if would he used bv neonle 










— ., _ _^ , ^ _ 










MA 


RCH 1985 






ENTER 


15 



" "CbiVMCTJQAS 

EDITED BY JESSICA WOLFE 




Hg*- 



Educated Apples 



Apple owners in search of low- 
cost educational software should 
investigate the Audio Active se- 
ries. Ceres: A Space Odyssey is 
one of 20 programs selling for 
$9.95. This high-fSying text adven- 
ture teaches interesting lessons in 
astronomy and space science, 
then tests your knowledge. 

Other programs in the series 
cover computer literacy, math, lit- 
erature and reading for most ages 
and grade levels. To request a list 
of the Audio Active programs avail- 
able, write to: ESP, Inc. 1201 E. 
Johnson, Jonesboro, AR 72401. 



Newsletter Exchange 



Atari computer clubs and users 
groups are invited to join a news- 



letter exchange program by the 
Atari Computer Club of the Palm 
Beaches. If your club publishes a 
newsletter, the ACCOPB will send 
you theirs, called the Pokey Press, 
free. For more information, write to 
the Atari Computer Club of the 
Palm Beaches, % Jim Woodward, 
15993 S.W. Eighth Ave., Delray 
Beach, FL 33444. 



Freeloading for Fun 



Sometimes it pays to be a free- 
loader The Freeloader's Software 
Library (American Software Pub- 
lishing) offers more than 10,000 
public domain programs. The 
software is available in both disk 
and cassette formats to anyone 
with Apple, Commodore 64, 
VlC-20, Tl 99/4A, IBM-PC or Atari 
com:puters. 

Much of the library is com- 
posed of multi-program disks and 
cassettes, with at least four pro- 
grams on each. In addition to 
word processing, telecom- 
munications and educational 
programs, American Software's 
catalog lists a wide variety of 
games, graphics and music soft- 
ware. The best news of all, 
though, is the price— cassettes 
cost only $5 each; disks are 
$7,50. 

For a copy of their free, 1 65- 
page catalog, write to: Freeloader 
Catalog, American Software Pub- 
lishing Company P.O. Box 57221, 
Washington, D.C. 20037. B 

To be listed in this column, write to: 
"Connections," ENTER. 1 Lincoln PIsea. 
New Yorl(. NY 10023. 



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k Formerly The Original Computer Camp 



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Star Tech 



Countdown 10-9-8-7... 

The space shuttle 
Discovery stands 
on the launch 
pad at Cape 
Canaveral, Flor- 
ida. Inside the cockpit, 
astronaut Anna Fisher and 
four other crew mennbers 
await liftoff. During the mis- 
sion, Anna is responsible 
for operating the shuttle's 
mechanical arm to pluck 
two damaged satellites 
from orbit. 

.. .6-5-4... 
Meanwhile, on the ground, Phyl- 
lis Tanksley, Senior Sofware System 
Engineer, and other mission control 
specialists are ready to monitor 
every aspect of the flight — from lift- 
off to landing. 

Phyllis, at Mission Control in 
Houston, is the computer expert. 
Anna, aboard the space shuttle, is 
a computer user like you or me. 
Through this and every space shut- 
tle mission, astronauts and mission 




Computers 

ABOARD 
THE SPACE 
SHUTTLE 

BY JOANNE HARRISON 



ENTER 



control workers depend 
upon a sophisticated net- 
work of computers to make 
each flight a success. 
...3-2-1. ..Blastoff! 

SKY-HIGH DIPS MAlf 



"Beware the dreaded DIPS 
Malf," says Anna, whose 
flight last November was a 
rousing success. Anna 
smiles when she gives this 
mysterious warning. But she 
knows that a DiPS Malt- 
space slang for a computer 
(Data Processing System) ma/func- 
tion — can be a serious matter 

The world has already dis- 
covered how serious a DiPS Malf 
can be: 

• On June 25, 1984, a faulty elec- 
tronic component in a shuttle 
computer postponed the first Dis- 
covery launch. The next day a 
computer did its job and detected 
a damaged fuel valve just seconds 
before lift-off. 

MARCH 1985 




• In December 1983, the shuttle 
Columbia had a flawless flight — 
until it was time to land. Then a 
DIPS Malf in two computers left the 
shuttle without navigation systems. 
Back-up computers saved the day. 
But that incident scared a lot of 
people, including astronaut John 
Young. He later admitted: "When 
the first computer went, my knees 
shook. When the second one went, 
I turned to jelly" 

Neither of these DIPS Malts 
placed the astronauts in serious 
danger. But they did help demon- 
strate how important computers 
are to the space shuttle program. 
From astronaut training to the 
launch and landing of each flight, 
computers are crucial. 

NASA's use of computers may 
seem out of this world. But in 
space, as on Earth, there are com- 



puter users and computer experts. 
Surprisingly most of the users are 
in the shuttle — and most of the 
experts are back here on Earth. 

"There are only two computer 
'wizards' that I can think of (among 
the astronauts)," says Anna Fisher. 
"That's Norm Thagard and Dave 
Hilmers....The rest of us have 
learned to be computer users. We 
don't need to understand why the 
software does what it does, we just 
need to know how to make it re- 
spond to Malfs." 

The astronauts must learn how to 
use the spacecraft's computers. 
Like students in computer class, 
they read manuals and practice 
with the shuttle computers so that 
they know what to do if something 
goes wrong. 

"We have this giant fvlalf book, " 
says Anna Fisher. "It's about three 



inches thick and it gives all the 
instructions for 'safe-ing' the 
systems." 

"Safe-ing the system" means cor- 
recting the malfunction. This can 
be anything from shutting off a 
switch to transferring a failing on- 
board computer's memory to a 
computer on the ground. Mostly it's 
making sure whatever is "going 
Malf" aboard the shuttle doesn't 
make other things go wrong. 

"We have these things called cue 
cards. They're cards printed with 
the actions to take immediately in 
case of a Malf on ascent," says 
Anna. During lift-off, she explains, 
"there's absolutely no time to go 
looking through anything. So, be- 
fore a flight, the crew looks around 
the shuttle cockpit to see where we 
can put these cue cards up so the 
crucial instructions will be right 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



19 



Computers 
help put the 

SHUTTLE 

ALOFT BUT 

THEY'VEALSO 

GROUNDED SOME 

FLIGHTS. 



where we need them — when we 
need them. 

"Ascents and Entries {A/E) are 
the most critical times in any flight," 
Anna says. "During A/E's, we have 
four computers running exactly the 
same software, 'talking' to each 
other 

"Then there's the BFS (Backup 
Flight System), the fifth on-board 
computer It's always programmed 
by a different company" This is 
done, explains Anna, so that "if 
there's a problem with the primary 
software (in the four identical com- 
puters), then (the fifth computer} 
can get you up and bring you down 
safely... You can fly an entry on that 
one computer You sure wouldn't 
want to, but you could if you had 
to." 

To prepare for any possible prob- 



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/Iflfla f /sftef anrf (ylher crew members during the November shuttle flight. 



lems, Anna and the other astro- 
nauts are trained in space flight 
simulators. Computer-controlled 
devices like the Digital Image-Gen- 
eration system and the Poly-Voice 
Sound Synthesizer are used to ac- 
curately recreate the sights and 
sounds of an actual shuttle flight. 

"The (shuttle computer) system 
isn't actually that difficutt to learn to 
use," says Anna. "Most of (the on- 
screen displays) |ust say things like 
'Item I, Execute...'" But, she adds, 
the astronauts must still train to 
become top-notch computer users, 

Phyllis Tanksley and other com- 
puter experts at the space 
agency's SPF (Software Production 
Facility) also train hard for each 
mission. 

"A large part of my job is to play 
'what-if?'" explains Phyllis, who be- 
gan working for NASA when she 
was 18 years old. She is fluent in 
Fortran, BASIC, PASCAL and As- 
sembly computer languages. 
"What we do is play all of this out on 
our PC's and then plan backups for 
everything that might happen." 

Thanks in part to this constant 
testing. NASA has never had any 
major in-flight software problems. 
"Oh, we've had some little nits, but 
never anything serious," according 
to Anna. "That's because we find 
the big ones early on over at SAIL." 

SAIL, the Shuttle Avionics /nte- 
gration Laboratory, is where 
potential shuttle computer software 
problems are simulated. The SAIL- 
ers' job is to check out all the 
software written for NASA to make 
sure it's as perfect as possible. 

"Let me give you an example," 
says Phyllis. "On the first flight of 
the Columbia in 1981, they had a 
problem with the computers. ...We 



20 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



couldn't get them to agree, 

"We'd say: 'Computer #1 says 
that 1+1 =2, is that right Computer 
#2? What do you think Computer 
#3?' If we can't get complete 
agreement, then we have a prob- 
lem and we have to track down the 
cause," Phyllis explains. "With the 
Columbia, we had people flying in 
from all over to work with the sim- 
ulators. Eventually they were able 
to figure out that the computers 
were 'missing' one another's mes- 
sages because timing (between 
computers) was off." 

It was a programming problem, 
Phyllis points out. Once located, it 
was relatively simple to correct. 
"Fixing something is often easier 
than you might think," says Phyllis. 
"Although there are thousands of 
different computer systems on the 
shuttle, they're broken down into 
families of systems. ...For example, 
when the APU (Auxiliary Power 
Unit) kept failing on one of the 
flights, an APU system manager 
climbed into a little room with a 
computer and simulated what was 
going on inflight." 

THE FUTURE IN SPACE 

Over the years, the workings of 
SAIL have become increasingly so- 
phisticated. These days the lab is 
looking more than ever like the 
flight deck of the starship Enter- 
prise. 

"We've begun to do basic soft- 
ware work for the space station," 
says NASA spokesperson Billie 
Deason. "We've just installed a 
mock-up of the station command 
center. Now one wall at SAIL has 
five computer display screens of 




different sizes, all with color dis- 
plays. We plan to control the space 
station from a single module. Every- 
thing the astronauts will need to 
know will be in color graphics dis- 
plays." 

Future space flights, like the cur- 
rent generation of shuttle missions, 
will depend on this technology — 
operated by computer-using astro- 
nauts like Anna Fisher and 
perfected by computer experts tike 
Phyllis Tanksley. It is a team effort. 

"You have a real interest in mak- 
ing things perfect," explains Anna, 
"because your friends are going to 
be flying that shuttle, depending on 
it to work," @ 

JOANNE HARRISON is a freelance writer in 
Houston, Texas. 



Astronauts 

learn how to 

use shuttle 

computers-and 

PREPARE FOR 
DIPS MALES. 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



21 




Last year, we asked you to send us your 
ideas for the silliest, most ridiculous video 
and computer games you could imagine. 
You came through with flying colors — as 
well as cross-eyed pigeons, flying dishes 
and Hair IVIonsters. In the crazy game category, our 
contest was a roaring success. We'd be amazed to 
see any of these Gonzo games at the local arcade, but 
we think they're great just the same. 

Everyone whose idea is printed here will receive an 
ENTER T-shirt. 

Our thanks go to all of you who gave us your 
versions of "Games Gone Gonzo." 



ROCKWARS 

By Crystal King, 13 



You are a young rock musician trying to make a living 
in a world where other famous performers and groups 
are determined to make you fail. In the first scene you 
use the joystick to reach the top floors of Caesar's 
Palace, where you are planning to give a concert. You 
must avoid crowds, reporters, and worst of all, other 
rock stars. 

Your only weapon is a bass guitar which, when 
played improperly, will emit a deafening noise 




that will temporarily paralyze your enemies. 

In the second scene, you must wander through New 
York City in search of the ultimate song. Again, you 
may use the bass to survive. In the last scene, you 
must play the ultimate song and win the hearts of 
millions. 

As you dance around the stage, your enemies 
start a massive food fight to prevent you from 
completing your song, You must dodge flying pies, 
tomatoes, candy bars, and other foods. The ultimate 
prize is to receive Grammy Awards for Best New Artist, 
Song of the Year and Vocal Performance. 



22 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



GAMES GONE 

GONZO 




iNVA SION OF THE DlRH DiSHES 

By Raymond Waldron, 10 



A HACK OF THE SPINACH THINGS 

By Jennifer Buehler, 11 

Your mother gives you pork chops and spinach for 
dinner You finish off the chops in a minute, but don't 
touch the spinach. Your mother gives you a choice: go 
to bed or eat the spinach. You go to bed. That night, 
you have a terrible nightmare that you are in a video 
game ceiled Attack of the Spinach Things. Little 
spinach sprouts are chasing you throughout a castle. 
To win, you must find the kitchen, grab a giant salt 
shaker and salt the spinach things away You lose 
when they trap you and force you to eat five pounds of 
spinach. 



Space Erasers 

ByGregHowleylO 



PART ONE: Your mom has left for work and tells you to 
wash dishes that are covered with food and don't want 
to get clean. With your soap liquid and rag, you have to 
get them clean before Mom gets home. 

PART TWO: You and Dad have to clean flying 
dishes — you with your soap gun and Dad with a water 
fighter. You must get the dishes clean before Mayor 
Jupiter — a real neat freak — comes for.i^ dinner. 





You have been caught doodling in class and have to 
stay after school and write "I will pay attention in class" 
50 times on the blackboard. Suddenly, Martian 
invaders break in and start erasing all your precious 
handwriting. You must finish before time runs out^or 
else they lock up the school and erase you. 

{Continued on next page) 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



23 



GAMES GONE 

GONZO 



Thundarr THE Barber 

ByRobbySmilh,9 

It is 1994. A runaway Hair-Growth potion comes from 
outer space and unleashes cosmic destruction. Two 
thousand years pass. The Earth is reborn as a world 
of super long hairs. One man fights for haircuts — 
Thundarr the Barber! With Ookia the Razor, Princess 
Hairiel and his fantastic Sun Scissors, he battles the 
forces of evil long hair to get an anti- 

hair antidote. 




School Daze 

By Juk McLaughlin, 13 



You wake up with three minutes to get to school. You 
must get dressed , eat breakfast, brush your teeth and 
get to school. ^- 

If you make it to school in time, you have to pass 
quizzes in every class while dodging spitballs. You 
must avoid a bully in the halls and try not to get called 
on in your Social Studies class. If you get this far, you 
try to make it through Phys. Ed. 

Finaily you must go to basketball practice where you 
do hazardous drills (like layups) and avoid a flying 
basketball. Complete this and start all over again. 



Homer 

By Cathy Elsberry 14 




Your name is Homer, and you are a cross-eyed pigeon. 
To win, you must find your way through airplane- 
crowded skies to see an optometrist about getting 
some glasses. But watch out! Because of your crossed 
eyes, you see double — and if you accidentally hit a 
plane, your goose is cooked! 
Second level: you lose your new glasses and must go 
back to the first level. i3 




24 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



f 




mmmm 



CENTER 



THE COMPUTER -USER'S HANDS-ON HANDBOOK 



MARCH. 1985 




'FEATURING* 



BASIC TRAINING: Programming 26 

BASIC GLOSSARY: Computer Vocabulary . . . 29 
THE ENTER CHAUfNGE: Hobby Helper .30 

BASIC PLUS: Tips on Programming 33 

ASK ENTER: Our Help-Line 34 



RANDOM ACCESS 35 

PENaL CRUNCHERS: Puzzles 36 

FEEDBACK: Readers Write 38 

INPUT # 8: Tell Us What You Tlitnk 39 

ANSWERS/NEU: Coming Attractions 40 



1 



BBIEn 




INING 



PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COMPUTER 

Apple, Adam, Atari, Commodore 64, IBM, T199/4A, 
Timex-Sinclair, TRS-80, VlC-20 



Once upon a time, Little Red 
Serial Port went for a walk in 
the forest where it found 
seven portables named Sleepy, 
Grumpy, Gosub, Goto, Logo, 
Pascal and Joystick. "My, what a 
large disk drive you have, 
Grandmama," said Little Red 
Serial Port. "The better to catch 
your syntax errors, my dear," said 
the Wolf. Then, just as the clock 
struck midnight, Cinderella had to 
log off her bulletin board. And the 
Baby programmer said, "Some- 
body's been playing with my 
videogame, and they beat my 




high score!" 

This excerpt is from one of 
our favorite bedtime stories- 
Goldilocks and the Three Bytes, 



Remember those other great fairy 
tales, like the Princess and the 
Peripheral? Well don't worry, 
BASIC training this month is no 
fairy tale. It's a selection of great 
programs and advice. 

In addition to programs for 10 
different home computers, we 
have our Glossary with a new 
definition each month, a monthly 
programming Challenge, and 
our BASIC Plus column with tips 
on writing programs. 

So, Fi Fie Fo Fum, type in those 
programs and get ready to RUN. 
—Flichard Cheval, Technical Editor 



MOUSEMAZE: 

COMMODORE 64, 

ATARI 

You've heard of the mouse — 
the newest rage in computer 
hardware. Well, now you can have 
a mouse of your own. It's a com- 
puterized mouse that can learn a 
maze right before your eyes. 

Mouse Maze was written by 
Doug Krehbief, age 17, who is 
ENTER'S Technical Assistant. 
Each time you run the program, a 
new maze appears. Then you 
place some "cheese" in the maze 
by hitting the space bar. A second 
tap on the space bar sets your 
"mouse" in motion. 

You can watch the mouse 
memorize the maze by drawing a 


"map" on the right hand side of 
your screen. Once the mouse has 
learned the maze, it will run back 
and forth from the entrance to the 
cheese without taking any wrong 
turns. 

Note: in the programs below, 
words in /fa//cs mean press those 
keys. For example SHIFTS means 
hold the SHIFT keyand press 9. 

19 SPACES means press the space 
bar 19 times. 

COMMODORE S4: 

10 S1 = 1065:HL = 32:M1 = 81 

20 WL = 16e:CH = 102: = 102 
30 DIM P(3) 

40 P(0)=l:P(l)=-40: 
P(2)=-1:P(3)=40 
50 PRINT CHR$(147) 
60 FOR G= 1024 TO 1042 
70 POKE G,160:NEXT G 
80 FORI = lT022 
90 PRINT "SHIFT 9 19 SPACES 


SHIFT 1 SPACE " 
100 NEXT I 
110 POKESl,4:P = Sl 
120 D = INT(RND{1)*4):X = D 
130 T = P + 2*P(D) 
140 IF PEEK(T)=WL THEN POKE 

T,D:POKEP + P(D),HL:P =T: 

GOTO 120 
150 D = (D + 1)*-(D<3) 
160 IF DOX THEN 130 
170 D = PEEK(P}:POKEPHL 
180 IFD<4THENP = P-2*P(D): 

GOTO 120 
190 PRINT "SHIFT UP-CRSR 

HIT ANY KEY TO PLACE 

CHEESE IN MA7;F," 
200 GETC$:IFC$ = ""THEN200 
210 X = INT(RND(l)M7-l-3) 
220 Y = INT(RND(l)*19 + 3)*40 
230 IFPEEK(982 + X + Y) = 32 

THEN POKE {982 + X + Y), 

CHrGOTO 250 
240 GOTO 210 
250 POKESl,Ml:P = Sl:D = 2 
260 T = P + P{D) 
270 FOR U = 1 TO 20: NEXT U 

(Program corjlinues on next page) 



26 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



an 





1 


(Program contmed from previous page) 




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^~— -— — _J 


280 


IF PEEK(T)<>HL THEN 




f~~~--- 




» 




GOTO 330 










-/ 


290 


IF PEEKIT + 20) = WL THEN 




^>^ 


— ^^~~'"~-~— »-<^ 




'~'~~~~"*'~~— ~-C^~--~. 




FORU=1TO100:NEXT 




■^ 


A 






.y~~JL.^ 




U: POKE P + 20,24 








^^ j^ ~1 


300 


POKET,Ml:POKEPHL 








.^^'^ ^ j^ 


310 


P = T:POKEP + 20,WL 






^ 


^jf^ 


320 


D=(D + 2) +4*{D>1) 






^ 


'"*— -*,,__^_^ 


330 


D = (D-1)-4*(D = 0) 




^^'" ^^^^^^^^^B^L..,^ 


1^ 


^^""~~*~- 


340 


IF PEEK(T) = CH THEN GOTO 
360 




^^ ^^^p^^ 


r 




350 
360 


GOTO 260 

PRINT "SHIFT UP-CRSR 

HIT ANY KEY TO SEE 










60 


FORG = SC + 41TOSC + 59 


260 


T = P + P(D) 




MOUSE RUN MAZE " 


70 


POKEG.160:NEXTG 


270 


FORU = 1TO20:NEXTU 


370 


GET CS:IF C$- " " THEN 370 


75 


FOR G = SC TO SC + 18:P0KE 


280 


IF PEEK(T)<>HL THEN 


380 


S1=P + 20:P = S1 




G.205:NEXTG 




GOTO 330 


390 


PRINT "SHIFT UP-CRSR 


80 


FORI=iT0 22 


290 


IF PEEK(T + 20) = WL THEN 


^ 


HIT Q TO RUN 


90 


PRINT "ATAJU KEY 19 




FORU = 1TO100:NEXT U: 


ANOTHER MA?;K 




SPACES ATARI KEY 1 SPACE " 




POKE P + 20, 56 


400 


T = P + P(D) 


100 


NEXT I 


300 


POKE T,M1 : POKE PHL 


410 


IF PEEKIT) = WL THEN POKE 


110 


P0KES1,4:P = S1 


310 


P = T:POKEP + 20,WL 




T-20,Ml:POKEP-20, 


120 


D = INT(RND(0)*4):X = D 


320 


D = (D + 2) + 4*-(D>l) 




HL:P = T:D = (D + 2)+4MD>l) 


130 


T = P + 2*{P(D)) 


330 


D = {D-l)-4*-(D = 0) 


420 


GET V$;IF V$ = "Q" THEN 


140 


IF PEEK(T) = WL THEN POKE 


340 


IF PEEK(T) = CH THEN GOTO 




RUN 




TD:P0KE P + P(D),HL:P=T: 




360 


430 


D = (D-1)-4MD = 0) 




GOTO 120 


350 


GOTO 260 


440 


GET A$:IF A$ = " " THEN 


150 


D=(D + 1)*{D<3) 


360 


PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO 




END 


160 


IF DOX THEN 130 




SEE MOUSE RUN MAZE " ; 


450 


GOTO 400 


170 
180 


D = PEEK(P):POKEPHL 
IFD<4THENP = P-2*P{D): 


370 
380 


GET#l,a 
S1=P + 20:P = S1 




j__|^___||B 


ATARI: ^^^^ 




GOTO 120 


390 


PRINT "HIT START TO RUN 




"VIHIHHH^ 


190 


PRINT "HIT ANY KEY TO 
PLACE CHEESE IN MAZE " ; 


400 


ANOTHER MAZE "; 
T = P + P(D) 


5 


POKE 82,0 


10 


SC = PEEK(88) + 256* PEEK(89) : 


200 


OPEN#l,4,4."K:":GET#l,Q 


410 


IF PEEK(T) = WL THEN POKE 




HL = 0:M1 = 84 


210 


X = INT(RND{0)*17 + 3) 




T-20,M1:POKEP-20,HL: 


20 


S1=SC + 41:WL = 128: 


220 


Y = INT(RND(0)*19 + 3)*40 




P = T:D=(D + 2) + 4*-(D>l) 




CH = 208: 0=208 


230 


IF PEEK({SC - 42) + X + Y) = 


420 


IF PEEK(53279) = 6 THEN 


30 


COM P(3) 




THEN POKE ((SC- 42) 




RUN 


40 


P(0) = 1:P(1) = -40:P(2)=-1; 




+ X + Y), CH:GOTO250 


430 


D=(D-l)-4*-(D = 0} 




P(3) = 40 


240 


GOTO 210 


440 


GOTO 400 


50 


PRINT CHRS(125) 


250 


P0KES1,M1:P = S1:D = 3 




—Douglas Krehbiet 


- 1 



KALEIDOSCOPE: 
APPLE, ADAM 

This program was written by 
Enter Youth Advisor Philip 
Millwood, age 15, of Anchorage, 
Kentucky, It's a short but fun 
graphics program that creates a 
video kaleidoscope on your 

H4ARCH 1985 



Apple or Adam computer screen. 



10 


GR : READ C 


20 


FORJ = 0TO19 


30 


FORI = 0TO39 


40 


L = L + 0.015 


50 


IFL>1 THEN READ C:L = 0: 




IF C = - 1 THEN RESTORE 




.READC 


60 


COLOR = C 


70 


PLOT J,I 


80 


PLOT 39 - J, 39 - I 



90 


PLOT I.J 


100 


PLOT 39 - 1,39 - J 


110 


PLOT J/ 2,1 


120 


PLOT 39 -J/ 2,39 - I 


130 


PLOT 1/2. J 


140 


PLOT 39 - 1/2,39- J 


150 


NEXT : NEXT 


160 


DATA 8,9,1.0,13.-1 


170 


GOTO 20 




—Philip Millwood 


(BASIC Traif)ing contifiues on riextpage) 



ENTER 



27 



Basic Training 



(BASIC Training cont. from previous page) 

VIRUS ATTACK: 

APPLE, ADAM, ATARI, 

COMMODORE 64, IBM, 

MICROSOR BASIC, Tl 99 41 A, 

TRS-80, VIC-20 

Here's a game to play while 
you're cooped up at home with a 
case of the ftu. It may not work as 
well as a shot of penicillin, but it 
certainly is more fun. 

In this game, you are a white 
blood cell. Your job is to fight off 
an invasion of viruses. Each turn, 
between one and three viruses- 
all of the same type— get into your 
blood stream. You must produce 
the correct antibody to kill them. 
The problem is that there are 16 
different viruses to choose from, 
and you can only produce four 
antibodies per turn. 

In real life, antibodies and 
viruses are complex molecules. In 
"Virus Attack," however, they are 
only four letters long, and can 
only be made up of the letters A 
and B. (To see a list of all the 
viruses, look at the DATA state- 
ments in lines 60 through 90.) 

Sound easy? Maybe, but make 
sure you kill all the antibodies by 
your sixth turn, or they will mutate 



to another type. 

Here's how the program works. 
It picks a virus randomly in lines 
110 through 140. You select anti- 
bodies in lines 170 through 210. 
Lines 220 checks for a match. The 
amount of viruses (AMT) is in- 
creased in line 250. 

Below is the program for Apple 
and Adam computers, Adapta- 
tions for other computers follow. 

APPLE, ADAM: 




180 


PRINT 


190 


HIT = 


200 


FOR SEL = 1 TO 4 


210 


INPUT AB$ 


215 


REM CHECK FOR MATCH 


228 


IF AB$ = VIRUSS AND AMT 




< > 0THEN AMT = AMT 




— l:HIT = mT -1- 1 


230 


NEXT SEL 


240 


IF AMT = THEN GOTO 320 


250 


AMT = AMT + INT ( RND (1) 




•3) -(- 1 


260 


TURN = TURN + 1 


270 


IF TURN > 12 THEN GOTO 290 


280 


GOTO 100 


290 


HOME 


300 


PRINT '•YOU ARE VERY ILL 




AND NOW HOSPITALIZED" 


310 


GOTO 340 


320 


HOME 


330 


PRINT "YOU HAVE BEATEN 




THE VIRUSU!" 


340 


PRINT "PLAY AGAIN? Y/N" 


350 


INPUT H$ 


360 


IF H$ = "Y" THEN GOTO 10 


370 


END 


380 


REM DISPLAY STATUS 


390 


HOME 


400 


PRINT " STATUS 




REPORT 


410 


PRINT 


420 


IFFL = THEN GOTO 450 


430 


PRINT HIT; "OF YOUR 




ANTIBODIES WERE 




EFi^'KCTIVE" 


440 


PRINT 


450 


PRINT "THERE ARE NOW"; 




AMT; "VIRUSES ALIVE" 


460 


PRINT 


470 


PRINT "CURRENT 




(Program continues on next page) 




28 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



IBB 



(Program coniinued Irom previous page) 


480 


FL= 1 


490 


INVERSE 


500 


IF AMT > 21 THEN GOTO 




580 


510 


ON {AMT / 3) GOTO 




520,530,540.550, 560, 570, 580 


520 


PRINT "GOOD": GOTO 590 


530 


PRINT "MODERATE": GOTO 




590 


540 


PRINT "FAIR": GOTO 590 


5S0 


PRINT "FADING": GOTO 590 


560 


PRINT "POOR": GOTO S90 


570 


PRINT "UGH !": GOTO 590 


580 


PRINT "GASP 1" 


590 


IF TURN <> 6 THEN GOTO 




G10 


600 


PRINT : PRINT "CAUTION 




THE VIRUS HAS 




MUTATED!!" 


610 


NORMAL 


620 


RETURN 



IBM PC AND PCjr: Change lines 20, 
290, 320, and 390 to: CLS 
Delete lines 160, 490, and 610 

COMMODORE 64 AND VIC-20: 

Change lines 20, 290, 320 and 

390 to: PRINT CHR$(147) 
Replace these lines: 

160 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 
490 PRINT CHR$( 18); 
610 PRINT CHR$(146) 

TRS-80 MODELS I, III, 4 AND COLOR 

COMPUTER: Change lines 20, 290. 

320 and 390 to: CLS 

Delete lines 160, 180, 410, 440, 

460, 490, and 610. 

Replace these lines; 

120 FORX= 1TORND(0)*16 
250 AMT = AMT + INT(RND{0) ♦ 
3)-!-l 

MICROSOFT BASIC (FOR KAYPRO 
AND OTHER COMPUTERS): Change 
lines 20, 290, 320, and 390 to: 

PRINT CHR$(147) 

Delete lines 160, 490 and 610 
Add or replace these lines: 

5 RANDOMIZE 

120 FOR X = 1 TO INTCRND * 



16) + 1 
290 AMT = AMT + INT 
(RND*3) + 1 

ATARI: Change lines 20, 290, 320 

and 390 to: print CHR$(125) 
You must remove all the quotation 
marks from lines 60, 70, 80 and 90. 
Delete lines 490 and 610. 
Add this line: 

5 DIM PICKS (4), VIRUS$(4). 
A£$(4), H$(4) 

TI99IA: Change lines 20, 290, 
320, and 390 to: call clear 
If you do not have Extended 
BASIC, you must break up all mul- 
tiple lines. 

Delete lines I60, 240, 490 and 610. 
Add or replace these lines: 

5 RANDOMIZE 

100 IF TURN <> 6 THEN 150 

120 FORX= lTOINT{{16-RND) 

+ 1) 

220 IF AB$ <> vmus$ THEN 230 

222 AMT = AMT - 1 

223 HIT = HIT + 1 

224 IFAMT> = THEN 230 

225 AMT = a 

235 IF AMT = THEN 320 

250 AMT = AMT + INT ((3*RND) 

+ 1) 

270 IF TURN > 12 THEN 290 

360 IFH$ = "Y" THEN 10 

«420 IFFL = 0THEN480 

500 IFAMT>21THEN580 

590 IF TURN <> 6 THEN 610 

—Richard Chevai, Daniel f . Cohn 
(BASIC Training continues on next page) 



CORRECTIONS 

In our November issue, 
line 1150 of Downhill Racer 
should read: 

1150 DATA 9,9,9,9,15,9,9,9.9 

Line 190 of the program for 
the Postal Pete puzzle 
should read: 

190 IFL>0THENL = L + 
B(5):B(5) = 0:GOTO50 



BASIC GLOSSARY: 
ON _ GOTO 

ON GOTO allows a program 

to choose one of several lines 
to which it can go. An example 
would be: 

80 ON A GOTO 120, 400, 100 

To execute this statement, 
the computer first finds the 
value of variable A. The 
program will then GOTO the 
line number whose position in 
the list equals variable A. In this 
example, if A equals two, the 
program will GOTO line 400. 

If A equals zero, or it equals 
a number larger than the list of 
line numbers, the program will 
ignore the ON _ GOTO, and 
move on to the next statement. 
. Instead of a simple variable, 
you could insert an arithmetic 
expression between ON and 
GOTO. For example, line 510 of 
"Virus Attack": 

510 ON(AMT/3)GOTO520, 

530,540,550,560,570,580 

in this case, the computer 
first figures the value of AMT 
divided by three. If AMT 
divided by three equals five (if 
AMT is 15) then the program 
"will go to the fifth line number, 
or 560. (Fractions are ignored.) 

There is also an ON 

GOSUB command. It works the 
same way, but returns to the 
next line in the program after 
executing the correct 
subroutine. 

One ON_GOTO can 
replace several IF statements. 
Make sure to plan for a variable 
that might be zero or larger 
than the line list. 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



29 



(BASIC Training cent, from previous page) 


organize his baseball card 


program was written for, and a 




collection. You could do the same 


brief description of what the 


CHAlifNGEm2: 


thing for anything from postage 


program does. 


HOBBY HELPER 


stamps to old hit singles. Or how 


Entries must be postmarked no 


about a graphics program that 


later than March 10, 1985. We read 




helps you with model airplane 


every program that is sent in, but 


If you're reading this, the 


building? You could even write a 


because we get hundreds every 


chances are you're interested in 


program that keeps track of and 


month, we cannot reply to each of 


computers. (Unless you're sitting 


monitors your tropical fish tank. 


you. 


in a dentist's waiting room and 


Whatever you come up with, 


And remember, if you've written 


couldn't find anything else to do.) 


send your program to 


any other programs you think 


But just because you're interested 


CHALLENGE #12, ENTER 


belong in ENTER, send them to 


in computers doesn't mean you 


Magazine, CTW, 1 Lincoln Plaza, 


BASIC Training at the address 


don't have other interests and 


N.Y, N.Y 10023. 


above. We pay between $25 and 


hobbies. This month's Challenge 


We will then pick the best 


$50 for programs we publish. 


is to write a program that will 


programs and print them in 


C0I\/1ING NEXT MONTH: 


help you with one of your other 


BASIC Training. The winners will 


Programming Challenge #13 will 


pastimes. 


receive $25 and an ENTER T-shirt. 


be a contest for all you game 


For example, Will Harvey, 


All entries must be your original 


designers. It will have different 


the programmer of Music 


work. Remember to enclose a 


rules than our regular challenge. 


Construction Set. once wrote a 


note telling us your name, age, 


and a special prize for the winner. 


program that helped his brother 


T-shirt size, the computer the 


Tune in next month for details! 



WINNER OF 
CHAUINGE #9: 
Hl-RESDESIGNER 

IBM PCjr OR PC WITH COLOR 
GRAPHICS CARD 



Challenge #9 asked you to 
create a program that would turn 
your computer into an artist's tool. 
This winning program is by Brent 
Friar of Anaheim. California. 
Brent's program stood out 
because of the special features 
he included. 

With this program running, you 
can use the U.D.L, and R keys to 
move a line up, down, left or right. 
(To draw a diagonal line, alternate 
up or down with right or left.) 

The program uses some of the 
IBM graphics commands like 
PAINT and CIRCLE to make your 
drawing easier For example, just 



press K to draw a circle. The 
computer will ask you for the 
radius, and a circle will appear 
using your cursor as the center. If 
you want to color in an area, 
position your cursor inside the 
shape to be filled and press F 

Pressing M allows you to move 
without drawing (or to erase). The 
B key turns your "pen" on again. P 
changes the color you aredrawing 
in and C clears the screen. 






GOTO 260 


120 


IFA$ = CHR$(68)THEN 




GOTO 270 


130 


IF A$ = CHR$(67) THEN 




CLS.X = 160:Y = 100:GOTO 70 


140 


IF A$ = CHR$(77) THEN 




GOSUB 290 


150 


IFA$ = CHR$(80)THEN 




GOSUB 470 


160 


IFA$ = CHR${75)THEN 




GOSUB 510 


170 


1FA$ = CHR$(70)THEN 




GOSUB 570 


180 


GOTO 70 


190 


X = X + DX:IFX>319THEN 




X-0 


200 


IFX<0THENX = 319 


210 


Y = Y + DY:IFY>199THEN 




Y = 


220 


IFY<0THENY=199 


230 


GOTO 70 


240 


DX = 0:DY=-1:GOTO19C 


250 


DX=-1:DY = 0:GOTO190 


260 


DX = 1:DY = 0:GOTO190 


270 


DX = 0:DY=1:GOTO190 


280 


END 


290 


PSET(X,Y) 


300 


C$ = INKEY$:IFC$="" 




(Program conlinues on next page) 



30 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



(BASIC Training cont. from previous page) 




THEN 300 


310 


IFC$ = CHR$(85)THEN 




GOTO 430 


320 


IFC$ = CHR${76)THEN 




GOTO 440 


330 


IFC$ = CHR$(82)THEN 




GOTO 450 


340 


IFC$ = CHR$(68)THEN 




GOTO 460 


350 


IFC$ = CHR$(66)THEN 




RETURN 


360 


GOTO 300 


370 


PRESET(X,y) 


380 


X = X + DX:IFX>319THEN 





X = 


390 


IFX<0THENX = 319 


400 


Y = Y + DY:IFy>199THEN 




Y = 


410 


IFY<0THENY=199 


420 


(SOTO 290 


430 


DX = 0; DY = - 1 ; GOTO 370 


440 


DX= - 1:DY = 0.GOTO 370 


450 


DX = 1 ;DY = 0.GOTO 370 


460 


DX = 0:Dy=l:aOTO370 


470 


LOCATE 22, 1:INPUT 




"WHICH COLOR 1,2,3" ;Z 


480 


IF Z> 3 OR Z< 1 THEN 470 


490 


LOCATE 22,1 :PRINT" 


500 


RETURN 



510 


LOCATE 23.1:INPUT "WHAT 




IS THE RADIUS" ;R 


520 


LOCATE 23,1:PRINT " ^«^ 
PI = 3. 141 593 ^* 


530 


540 


CIRCLE (X,Y),R,Z,PI,2*PI 


550 


CIRCLE (X,Y),R,Z,2*PI,PI 


560 


RETURN 


570 


LOCATE 22,1 .-INPUT 




"WHICH COLOR DO YOU 




WANT TO PAINT IN 1,2,3";Q 


580 


LOCATE 22.1: PRINT" 


590 


PAINT (X + 1,Y),Q,Z 


600 


RETURN 




—Brent Friar 




BREAK DANCING: Tl 99 4/ A 



Now your computer can join the 
latest craze to sweep the nation! 
That's right, your Tl 99 4/A can 
breakdance (sort of). Just run this 
program by Travis Worl<s, age 12, 
of Ringgold, Georgia, and you will 
see five small breakdancers on 
your screen. Press any one of the 
number keys and the break- 
dancers will do a different step. 
Hold a key down and four of them 
will keep dancing while the leader 
holds his pose. You can also let 
the computer do the directing. 

Of course, this program 
would be even better if it had its 



own music. Try adding sound 
without slowing down the 
dancers. 



5 

10 

20 
30 

40 



REM BREAKDANCERS 

RANDOMIZE 

GOSUB 250 

PRINT "BREAKDANCING!' 



PRINT "HUMAN OR 
COMPUTR CONTROL?" 

50 INPUT CONS 

55 CALL CLEAR 

60 IF CONS = "HUMAN" THEN 
120 

70 BD = INT(RND*5) + 153 

80 CALL KEY (0,W,E) 

90 IFE = 1 THEN 120 

100 GOSUB 180 




MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



31 



Basic Training 



(BASIC Training cont. from previous page) 








10 
20 


DEFINT A - Z : DEFSNG S 
F$ = "":G$="" 


160 

170 


REM LOOP • 1 
IF J = 1 THEN 140 i 


MELTAWAY: 


30 
40 


DIMA(13) 
S = 


180 


F$ = CHR$(153) + i 
CHR + $(179) + CHR$(166) i 


TRS-80 MODELS I , 


50 
60 


FORJ = 0TO13 
READ A(J) 


190 


G$ = CHR$(158) + 1 
CHR + $(191) + CHR$(173) 


HI AND 4 


70 
80 


S= S + A(J) 
NEXT 


200 
210 


FORS = 0TO30 
PRINT ^t RND(1020), F$; 




90 


IF S O11005 THEN PRINT"! 


220 


PRINT (?r; RND(1020), G$; 


This program for TRS-80 
: models 1, III and 4 lets you 
make nothing out of something. 


100 


THINK YOU MADE A 
MISTAKE IN TYPING THE 
DATA.": END 
D = 100 


230 
240 
250 


NEXT 

FOR S = 1 TO D ; NEXT 

J = USR(0) :IFJ = ITHEN 

240 


It "melts" away characters on 


110 


V = VARPTR(A{0)) 


1000 


DATA 33,316,1024,22, 


your video screen until the 
screen is blank. As the letters 
and graphics vanish, they twist 
and twirl in patterns. Ail you have 


120 
130 

140 


MS = V/256:LS= Y-256*MS 
IF PEEK(16396) = 201 THEN 
POKE 16526,LS: POKE 
16527.MS ELSE DEFUSR = V 
FORS = 1 TOD: NEXT 


1010 


-386,10272, 

5635,13569 ;? 

DATA 2851,-20104, " 

-3552,27232, 

-25917,10 


to do is type it in and run it. 


150 


J=USR(0) 




—David Lewis 









STAR DESTROYER: 
T/S WOO, 1500, 2068 

In this game forTimex-Sinctair 
computers, you must defend your 
planet from an invasion of deadly 
neutron stars. You move your ship 
to the right with the 8 key and left 
with the 5 key To fire your photon 
torpedo, press the key But there 
Is one catch. If you fire and don't 
hit a star, your torpedo will bounce 
off an invisible force field — and 
destroy you! 

You have one other problem. 
Your photon cannon is malfunc- 
tioning. Instead of shooting just 
one torpedo at a time, it will fire 
anywhere from one to seven. 
And your ship can't move while 
the torpedo is moving, so if it 
bounces back, you can't get out 
of the way. 

Here's a strategy hint: start 
firing at rows with more than seven 
stars in them. Then work your way 
down to rows with six, five, etc. 
This will decrease your chance of 



firing an "extra" torpedo. 

This game was sent in by 
James Torre, 15, of Springfield, 
Massachusetts. James tells us 
that his high score is 12,936. 






GOTO 150 


200 


FOR X = 1 TO INT (7*RND + 1) 


210 


LETB = R 


220 


LETB = B-1 


230 


PRINT AT B.C; "■"; AT 




B-1,C; 


240 


LET P = PEEK (PEEK 




16398 + 256* PEEK 16399} 


250 


IF P = 151 THEN GOTO 290 


260 


IF P = 20 THEN GOTO 350 


270 


PRINT "D" 


280 


GOTO 220 


290 


FAST 


300 


LETS = S + 1 


310 


PRINT " ■" 


320 


SLOW 


330 


NEXTX 


340 


GOTO 150 


350 


LETS = S*2*(PEEK 




16437-128) 


360 


PRINT AT 3,5; "GAME 




OVER...SCORE:":S 


370 


PRINT AT 6,9;" 




";Ar6,9; "PRESS 




ANY KEY" 


380 


IF INKEY$ = " " THEN GOTO 




370 


390 


CLS 


400 


PRINT AT 9,0; "WOULD YOU 




LIKE TO PLAY AGAIN? " 


410 


IF INKEY$ = " " THEN GOTO 




410 


420 


IF INKEYS = "Y" THEN RUN 




—James Torre 



32 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



IBB 



BASIC PLUS: 

Top-Down Programming 



BY MARK SUTTON-SMITH 

One of the greatest things 
about home computers is that you 
can make them do what you want. 
(Up (0 a point, anyway. They still 
won't take out the garbage.) 
By writing a program, you can 
"customize" your computer— turn 
it into a calculator, a game player 
or a filing system. 

There are, however, a thousand 
different ways to write any pro- 
gram. And different approaches 
can yield very different results. If 
you don't know what you're doing, 
a program that goes bloop and 
makes the screen flash can take 
85 lines. But with a few simple 
guidelines, those same 85 lines 
will produce a marching space- 
man singing "Beat It." 

How do you decide on the best 
way to write a program? This 
month, I'm going to introduce you 
to an idea called top-down pro- ■ 
gramming. It's easy, and will 
greatly improve your program- 
ming prowess. 

AH top-down means is that you 
start at the top with a general out- 
line of the program, then work 
your way down filling in the de- 
tails. Before you type a single line, 
divide your program up into its 
main parts. You'il need at least 
three sections in any program: 

1) The beginning. Here you set up 
your screen, give instructions, 
and set up any variables you'll 
need. This part is also called the 
initialization. 

2) The mainline. Most of the action 




takes place here. The mainline is 
where your program does the job 
for which you designed it. It is 
usually a loop of some kind. 
3) The cleanup. This is where you 
report on scores and close files or 
peripherals. In this part, you also 
give the user a chance to run the 
program again. 

HOW IT WORKS 



Say you're writing a program 
that lets the player use the joystick 
to drive a little man around the . 
screen and make noises. In this 
case, the initialization would con- 
sist of turning on the graphics 
mode, setting the colors, setting 
up the sound (if necessary), and 
constructing the picture of the lit- 
tle man, perhaps from data 
statements. Then the mainline 
would do most of the work, check- 
ing the joystick, moving the man 
if necessary, and blooping. The 
cleanup would give the user a 
chance to quit. 

In your first version of this pro- 



gram, your mainline loop might 
just be a REM statement: REM 
Mainline. This gives you a chance 
to test your start-up and clean up 
routines. The idea is to first con- 
struct a skeleton, then write and ; 
test one part at a time. 

Your mainline should be divid- 
ed up in the same way You might 
have one subroutine for input (the 
joystick), another subroutine to 
change the position of the man, 
and a third to make the blooping 
noise. Get in the habit of writing 
and testing one subroutine at a 
time. 

As usual, doing it the right way 
requires more work at the begin- 
ning. You have to think through 
your program and learn to pick 
out the important sections. But . 
this method will save you a lot of 
time when you're actually writing, 
and it makes your programs eas- 
ier to change later on. You'll have 
those spacemen beating a tune 
in no time. B 

MARK SUTTON-SMITH is an ENTER con- 
tributing editor. 



MARCH 1985 



EhJTER 



33 



ggr 




BY RICHARD CHEVAT 



-###- 



QWERTY VS. DVORAK 

DBM EHT£H: What is the Dvorak 
keyboard? I heard the Apple lie 
has one. — Eliza Hutchinson, 
South Deerfield, NH 

DEAR EUZA: Believe it or not, the 
common arrangement of keys on 
typewriter keyboards was created 
to slow down typists. In the 
earliest typewriters, keys, would 
get jammed because they weren't 
moving fast enough for a good 
typist. As a result, the "Qwerty" 
keyboard was developed to make 
typing more complicated. (The 
name Qwerty comes from six 
letters on one row of the keyboard.) 

The Dvorak keyboard was 
designed to make typing easier 
and faster Although it is not new, it 
recently has been gaining 
popularity. Here are some reasons: 

• The fingers of a Dvorak typist 
travel one mile in eight hours 
compared to 16 miles on a Qwerty. 

• Getting up to 40 words a minute 
takes one-tenth the time for a 
beginner using the Dvorak . 

• Guiness Book of Records 
typing champ Barbara Blackburn 
can reach 200 words a minute 
with the Dvorak. 

The Apple lie comes with the 
keys arranged QWERTY style. But 
if you press a button, the lie 
changes to Dvorak. Dvorak 
keyboards are also available for 
the IBM PC and the Wang PC. 
Software may come out soon to 
convert the Macintosh to Dvorak. 




The ZVi" disk; A harder floppy. 



-##A^ 



A NEW TWIST TO THE 
DISK? 

DEAR ENTER: I've read that the 
Apple Macintosh has its own kind 
of disk, It is smaller and looks 
nothing like a normal disk. I would 
like to know if you can use a 
normal disk on the Macintosh. 

—Derek Hall, 
Chicago, IL 

DEAR DEREK: When you say 
"normal," you probably mean a 
57/ floppy disk. That is the size 
that fits most home computer disk 
drives. Yes, the Macintosh has a 
new 372" disk drive. No, you 
cannot fit a SV/ disk in it. 

This new type of drive was 
developed by the Sony 
corporation, and it takes a new, 
smaller disk. Instead of a soft, 
flexible (or floppy) covering, the 
3/2" disk comes in a hard plastic 
case, Inside is the same magnetic 
material as the old floppy, but you 
can't touch it — there is no hole in 
the center or along the side. 



Instead, part of the case retracts 
inside the drive. The SVa" disk can 
hold as much or mone data as 
574" floppies. 



-###- 



ANY PORT IN A STORM 

DEAR ENTER: What is a computer 
port? And what's the difference 
between serial and parallel ports? 
— Katie Mulligan, 
Albany, NY 

DEAR KATIE: A port is the place on 
the computer where you plug in 
peripherals, A peripheral can be 
anything from a printer to a 
joystick to a telephone modem. 

There are generally two types of 
ports — serial and parallel. These 
terms simply refer to the way 
information is sent to and from the 
computer and the peripheral. 

Information runs through a 
computer in groups of eight bits. 
When these bits of information are 
travelling eight abreast, they are in 
a parallel formation. A parallel 
port can handle all eight bits at 
once, and so can transmit data 
very quickly 

A serial port, however, can only 
handle a single bit at a time. To 
transmit information between the 
computer and the peripheral, it 
must act as a kind of funnel, 
forcing the eight parallel bits to 
squeeze into a single-file line. E 

RICHARD CHEVAT is ENTER'S 
Technical Editor. 

II you have a question about computers, ■ 
wile to: ASK ENTER, ENTER, CTW. 
1 Uncoln Plaza. New York, NY 10023. 



34 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



▼▲1 




'AT 



MY COMPUTER-CRAZY FAMILY 




In my family, we never tight over the computer — we've got 10! 



BY USA SUBECK, 13 



/f n my family, everyone's a 
hacker. My parents, my 
brother and I own 10 comp- 
uters. All together, we've got four 
Atari 800s, four Atari 400s, two 
TRS-80S, and an assortment of 
disl< drives, cassette recorders, 
monitors, printers and modems. 
Everything in our house — recipes, 
phone numbers and addresses, 
our finances, school grades, med- 
ical records— can be found on the 
computer. 

My grandparents think we're 
completely bananas. My friends 
just think I'm lucky 

It wasn't always like this. Four 
years ago, dad was the only one 
interested in computers. He 
worked with one in his office. But 
one weekend, he came home with 



a TRS-80 Mode! 1 1 1 . He was con- 
sidering getting a compatible 
machine so he could spend more 
time at home. 

My brother Scott and I needed 
no convincing. We had worked on 
computers at school. Mom was 
the only doubter. "Why do we 
need one?" she asked. "Is it worth 
the money?" 

It looked like our home com- 
puter might not happen. But then 
Mom: started playing Scott 
Adams's Adventure on Dad's bor- 
rowed Model III. Once the game 
was loaded, my brother and I 
couldn't get near the machine. 
The very next day, we bought our 
own Model 111. 

With Mom and Dad so wrapped 
up, getting our homework done on 
the computer — forget about play- 
ing video games! — was 



impossible. So, soon after buying 
the Model III, we bought a Model 
I, with disk drive and modem. 

Two machines were fine. ..for a 
while. Then Mom noticed Scott 
Adams adventures were coming 
out with color graphics. Before we 
knew it, we were the owners of an 
Atari 800 with color capabilities. 

With all this equipment, we had 
everything we needed to start a 
bulletin board(BBS) . So a year 
ago, we started our own. 

We've all become more serious 
about computers. My mom now 
writes for Antic. Atari's monthly 
magazine. Scott and I each have 
a machine in our rooms for doing 
homework (and playing games, of 
course). The bulletin board is run- 
ning 24 hours a day. And every- 
one programs in at least one com- 
puter language. 

It's great being in a computer 
household, but there are draw- 
backs. For one thing, electrical 
storms make the whole family go 
nuts. The BBS goes down and 
everything has to be rebooted. 
There's also a space problem. 
We've had to rearrange the fur- 
niture with every new machine. 
And there are never enough out- 
lets or extension cords for the 
peripherals. 

Even when we leave home, 
there are problems. Most families 
go out of town and wonder if 
they've remembered to discon- 
nect the coffee pot. We wonder if 
we've remembered to turn off the 
disk drives and monitors. 

Life in a computer family can be 
complicated. Q 

USA SUBECK lives near Chicago. 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



35 




%0 



■BUNCHEBS 





HOLLYWOOD GOES COMPUTER 






It seems like you can't see a movie these days 
without also seeing a slew of computerized special 
effects. Computers and robots have become 
commonplace as leading... er... men. 

This month, ENTER turns to Hollywood for the word 
hunftheme. Get a pencil and see if you can find all 
20 high-tech themed films listed here. They're hidden 
across, up and down, and diagonally. See page 40 
for the solution. —Rebecca Herman 

BLUE THUNDER MOONRAKER 

CLOSE ENCOUNTERS SLEEPER 

COLOSSUS STAR TREK 

DEMON SEED STAR WARS 

DESK SET SUPERMAN III 

DREAMSCAPE THE BUCK HOLE 

ELECTRIC DREAMS TRON 

FORBIDDEN PLANET (2001) A SPACE ODYSSEY 

LOGAN'S RUN WARGAMES 

METROPOLIS WESTWORLD 


FORB 1 DDENPLANETAAR 
RBCAEDI 1 INAMREPUSD 
EWESTWORLDECAUZDPP 
CLOSEENCOUNTERSCAA 
DOAMS 1 LOPORTEMBOCR 
RGLOBWODESKSETLEE 1 
EAHOE 1 HESEEEMSUPOG 
ANTNSLAMRMRNWOEADL 
MSERRSROAATOBETCYB 
SRRAOLUNWGRWLFHSSM 
CUMKRN ISRRASDCUMSE 
ANAEYTDEAATH 1 LNREV 
PENRAHEETWSTQUDEYK 
ECPTNESDSPAFJRERHN 
THEBLACKHOLEGKRDJ N 
SMAERDC i RTCELESEHT 











COMPU-TALK WORD SCRAMBLE 

How's your computerese these days? Before you answer, take 
this hacker talk test. All you've got to do is rearrange the mixed-up 
letters in the five words below so they match the definitions on the 
right. Ready? Run. (Answers on page 40) 



1 TYMEAGEB 

2 SOEMU 

3 DARPOSWS 

4 KEEP 

5 LIOCISN 



One miltion bytes. 

Gadget that attaches to a 
computer and controls the cursor. 

Code of letters and/or numbers 
that gives you access to a file. 

Read contents of a memory 
location. 

Material used to create 
microchips. 



36 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 




w\^ 



FRACTURED 
FLOWCHARTS 

If there are arrows, boxes and decision points, 
you know what you're looking at— a flowchart. 
You've probably written a few of these computer 
roadmaps yourself to help you structure a program. 
You may have even played "Mystery at Flowchart 
fyianor" in December's ENTER. 

Well, here's a fractured flowchart. As if they weren't 
confusing enough, we're giving you a comical chart 
with problems. Some of the key arrows in this pro- 
gram map are missing. Your mission, should you 
accept, is to put them back where they belong. 

Check your answers on page 40. Happy charting! 



HOW TO EAT AN OREO^ COOKIE 




START 



GOTO 
COOKIE JAR 



T 



TAKE 
OREO^ 
COOKIE 



I 




FIHISH 
COOKIE 




FEED WAFERS 
TO ROVER 




CLEAN MESS 

BEFORE MOM 

SEES IT 



UNTWIST 

CHOCOLATE 

WAFERS 



EAT FILLING 











ENTER 












" 1 






1 












1 
















1 




1 






1 




, 1 


1 


' ^^ 




Fl 


-1 
_ 1 Li 










EXIT ' ' 


















































t 






f 




























MADE TO A-MAZE 






By now, you're probably familiar with EN 1 LR 
Youth Advisor Bela Selendy's computer-generated 
mazes. Here's one of Bela's more modest creations, 
made on an Apple He. Can you find the one path 
that leads from ENTER to EXIT? Good luck! 





MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



37 



'Feedback 



NO NERDS HERE 



I'm writing about the "Random 
Access" article ("I'm Not A Nerd") 
in your October issue, We have 
computers at our school and the 
situation is exactly the opposite of 
your story. The kids who use com- 
puters aren't nerds. Anyone who 
doesn't like computers is consid- 
ered a nerd. I find this confusing. 
What do you think? 

— Lori Summers 
Janesville, Wl 

Dear Lori: 

We think that people who use 
computers are not nerds, and that 
people who don't use computers 
are not nerds. The only nerds are 
people who call other people 
nerds. Does that clear up the 
confusion? —Ed. 



TIME FOR Tl 



How come in your "User Views" 

section there are no games for the 

T.I. computer? — Shawn Smith 

Dallas, Texas 

Dear Shawn: 

We try to cover the newest 
games in "User Views. " Since 
Texas Instruments stopped mak- 
ing home computers, there 
haven't been many new T.I. 
games released. But we're still 
trying to help T.I. owners like you. 
Our January I February "Connec- 
tions" column ("Disappearing 
Computers") should help you stay 
in touch with the latest news 
about T.I. software. And. of 




course, you'll find T.I. programs in 
every issue in our "BASIC Train- 
ing" section. — Ed. 

CRUNCHER CORRECTION 

in the "Pencil Crunchers" of 
your Jan. /Feb. 1985 issue of 
ENTER, there was a mistake in the 
answer. In order to correctly 
complete the puzzle {"Perplexing 
Pixels," page 57), on the first line 
of the puzzle you must only go 
eight blocks from the left instead 
of nine blocks. 

—Kim Edger 
Philadelphia, PA 

Dear Kim: 

The problem with perplexing 
pixel puzzles is that even the 
puzzle planners can be per- 
plexed by the pixel plan. Which is 
to say, you're right. We goofed on 
the answer page. Thanks to all the 
sharp-eyed readers who wrote in 
with this correction. —Ed. 



I AM NOT A NERD, PART II 

n read the "Random Access" 
f'm Not a Nerd." And I agree with 
Shelley Zulman. 

The people who are against the 
kids who like computers don't 
know what fun they are missing. 
You don't have to be smart to use 
a computer, just ready to learn. 
Computers are terrific learning 
tools. They can be fun. too. 

— Melissa Maxson 
Zephyrhills, PL 

MISSING 'STATE' 

I love your magazine. But I have 

one objection: I haven't seen your 
"State of the Art" feature since 
April. Could you bring it back? 

— Michael Dumas 
Washington, Ml 

Dear Michael: 

Thanks for the compliment, and 
rest assured that we've got sever- 
al "State of the Art" articles in the 
works. For instance, you'll soon 
read about the latest wristwatch 
technology— tiny high-tech wrist 
radios and TVs that would make 
even Dick Tracy jealous. — Ed. 





WRITE US! 

ENTER wants to hear from 
you! Our CompuServe ID is 
72456,1776. Or write to us at 
ENTER, 1 Lincoln Plaza, New 
York, NY 10023. 



38 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 




ENTER POLL #8 



I M Me'd like to find out about you, your experiences with 
tgmm computers, and fiowyou liked (or didn't like) this 
W W month's issue of ENTER. We'll send ENTER T-shirts 
to 25 of you, picked at random. 

Mail your questionnaire by March 10, 1985, to: INPUT #8, 
ENTER Magazine, P.O. Box 777. Ridgefield, N.J. 07B57 

I. Tell us about yourself: 

Name 



Address. 

City 



Grade Age_ 



State & Zip. 

Male Female 



T-shirt size Kids L 



Adult S , 



M 



II. We'd like to know about you and computers: 

A. Does your family own a computer? 

No, but we plan to buy one in the near future. 

No, and we have no plans to buy one at this time. 

(If you answered "No," GOTO section ///.) 

Yes. What kind? 

Adam 



Timex/Sinciair_ 

IBM_ 

TI.99/4A_ 



Apple 

Atari 

Commodore 64 

VIC-20 



Other (Indicate make and model) 

B. What peripherals does your family own? (Check all 
that apply) 

Video game player 

Disk drive 

Light pen 



Speech Synthesizer 

Touchpad 

Other (Explain) 



Cassette drive. 
Joysticks- 
Modem- 
Mouse. 
Printer. 



III. Have you, or anyone you know, ever used an electronic 
bulletin board? Yes No 

(If you answered "No," GOTO section IV.) 



A. What got you interested in using a bulletin board? 

Article in a magazine or book Another user 

Other (Please specify) 



B. How long have you been using bulletin boards? 
Less than 1 year 1-2 years 

More than 2 years 

C. What types of information do you exchange with 
other bulletin board users? (Check all that apply) 

Programming Game playing 

Computer equipment 

Other (Please specify) 



D. Do you or your family subscribe to an information 

network? Yes No 

If yes, which one? The Source CompuServe 

Other (Please specify) 



IV. We'd like your opinion about stories in titis issue. 



Liked It OK 



Didn't 
Like It 



Bill Budge 

StarTech: Space Shuttle 

Keyboard Camping 

Picking a Printer 

Cursor, Foiled Again! 

Have you ever gone to a computer summer camp? 
Yes No 

Are you planning on attending one this summer? 
Yes No If yes, which one? 



Do you like the new ENTER Center section? 

Yes No 

Did you try any of the programs in BASIC Training? 
Yes No If yes, which ones? 



Did you get them to work? Yes No 

V. Last, but not least: In future issues of ENTER, I'd like 
to read about 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



39 



Answers 



A 



HOLLYWOOD GOES COMPUTER (Page se) 



(FORB I DP ENPLANE t)Af^ R 




COMPU-TAIX WORD SCRAMBII (p^ge 



36) 



M 


E 


G 


A 


B 


Y 


T 


E 






M 





U 


S 


E 




P 


A 


S 


S 


W 





R 


D 






P 


E 


E 


K 








S 


1 


L 


1 


C 





N 



MADETOA-MAZE(p,ge37) 



ENTER 



EXIT 




FRACTURED FLOW CHARTS (Page 37) 



HOW TO EAT AN OREO ' COOKIE 




GOTO 
COOKIE JAR 



TAKE 
OREO' 
COOKIE 




FINISH 
COOKIE 



FEED WAFERS 
TO ROVER 



CLEAN MESS 

BEFORE MOM 

SEES IT 



UNTWIST 

CHOCOLATE 

WAFERS 




EATFILUNG 



40 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 




(Continued Imm page 7) 
♦♦♦- 



SPBLUNKER 



(Brederbund; Atari, 
Commodore 64, $29.95) 

Remember Pitfall II and l\/lon- 
tezuma's Revenge? Well, here's 
another underground treasure 
hunt. Unfortunately, Spelunker 
adds nothing new. 

There are six levels of caverns 
to explore, each made up of doz- 
ens of different "rooms" 
connected by tunnels, ropes, and 
elevators. Your character can 
walk, jump, climb, shoot ghosts, 
scare off bats with flares, and re- 
move rockpiles with dynamite. 

The game offers variety . But 




once you've done these things in 
other games, there's nothing 
special about doing them here. 

WRAP-UP 
BERNIE: The world of Spelunl<:er is 
strategically deep. If only there 
were something new to the experi- 
ence, I would have enjoyed it. 
PHIL: The maze itself is complex, 
but it's just the same game again. 

♦♦♦ 

UGHTWAVES 

(CBS Software, Commodore 64, $34.95) 

[Because ENTER's Bernie De- 
Koven was the designer of Light- 
waves, Phil wrote this review alone.] 



P 



m 



n--^ ^*\\ 





4 




I «-- 


SI 4&»ie*Bi' ^p f 


l- V J V -• y 


v -',•' -'.^ -'j^->ry-j 





Lightwaves is a system for 
creating and playing maze 
games. You guide your "light 
rider" to a single light source, but 
you do not move him. Instead, you 
rearrange light beams to create a 



path for the rider to follow. There 
are pre-programmed rectangular 
tracks around the screen. The 
light rider automatically moves in 
the direction of the track it is on. 
With a certain amount of fidget- 
ing, you can create a pathway that 
will lead the light rider to the light 
source. 

Lightwaves is a nice combina- 
tion of mental and physical 
dexterity Graphics could have 
been better, but the music is ex- 
cellent. 

WRAP-UP 
PHIL: There are lots of ways to play 
with Lightwaves. It isn't just an- 
other mindless exercise. H 



j ♦♦4 

PQ: THE PARTY QUIZ GAME 


(Suncom, Commodore 64/ Atari; 


$69.95: Apple II, $74.95 


,• IBM version planned.) 


How do you review a game 


you could only guess once, If 


called The Party Quiz Game? 


you picked the wrong answer, 


You throw a party, of course, As 


you couldn't play again until 


dedicated game reviewers— 


the next question. 


and partygoers— the ENTER 


RAT: Sometimes, all you could 


staff recently sat down to play 


do was guess. As in any trivia 


this trivia game software. Here's 


game, you have to know a wide 


what happened: 


range of trivial facts — from old 




movies to the number of knees 


JIM: This was just like being on 


on a giraffe. 


a TV game show. 1 expected to 


JESSICA: But some questions 


get hugged by Richard 


were too obscure. And some- 


Dawson at any moment. 


times you'd be paying so much 


Questions flash on the screen 


attention to the question, you 


and you've got to be the first to 


hit the wrong answer button. 


hit the right button on your 


RiCHiE: Suncom is coming out 


special controller. 


soon with new entertainment 


RICHIE: The four controllers, 


and sports questions on 


which come as part of the PQ 


separate disks. As long as you 


package, really add to the 


can plug in new questions, it 


game. You have to know the 


will be fun to have your own TV 


right answers and have quick 


game show at home. 


reflexes. 


PAT: How many knees does a 


IRA: 1 also liked the fact that 


giraffe have, anyway? 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



41 



AN ADVENTURE INSIDE THE COMPUTER 

Cmm 



BY JIM LEWIS 



Fou are about to embark on the 
adventure of a lifetime. This month, a 
confrontation with Cursor awaits you. 
Next month, we'll show you how to 
program this adventure into your 
computer 
Before you start, a few words of advice: 

• Keep track of where you go. 

• When asked to choose to take this or that, 
choose carefully Remember what you've 
taken. 

• Don'tjust stand there! Head to Box 1... and 
be ready to jump to the following pages, where 
your fate may be decided! 





7 You're standing in the school's computer room 
when... ZAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAP!!!! 
...a blue beam of light zings you from behind. At 
first you think it's "Mean" Marty Kochunkle, the 
school tough guy. But wait — "Mean" Marty zaps 
with erasers, not blue beams. 

Suddenly, you notice that the chairs, desks and 
computers are growing bigger But it's not the 
furniture, it's you. You are getting smaller Yikes! 



Smaller and smaller Tinier and teenier Mini and 
micro. Yes, you've shrunk to the size of a microchip. 
And then you realize what's happened: you've been 
attacked by Cursor, the evil one-eyed overlord of the 
computer underworld. Cursor makes Marty 
Kochunkle look like a boy scout. 

You've heard about this evil Cursor YouVe even 
seen his eye blinking behind the computer screen. 
The users' manual isn't going to help. You'll need to 
get in the computer, track down Cursor, and find 
the reverse-blue beam that will bring back the 
wonderful full-sized version of you. 
Rrrrrrring!!!! Classes are changing. Better get 
going or you'll be trampled. You'll have to pick up 
some help along the way. Remember to keep track 
of what you take. Now, take one of these things: 

• a pack of chewing gum; 

• a bus pass, or 

• a rubber band. 

Take one. Hurry! Try to figure out which computer 
Cursor is hiding in. It's either the Widgee Model X, 
the Loopins 1 -2-3 or the Fazoozle XT computer 

• If you choose the Widgee, go to Box 11 

• If you choose the Loopins, go to Box 18 

• If you choose the Fazoozle, go to Box 14 



42 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



Foim Again ! 




/ 



2 A blue beam comes from a blue box. It's dark 
inside the Loopins computer, but you're on the 
right track. Up ahead you see... 
A blue wire. 

Take it — and remember where and when you got 
it. 



Following Cursor's blink you turn a corner and... 
Disk must be the place. Disk Drive, that is. Cursor 
went into the Loopins' built-in disk drive. But it's so 
dark it's difficult to see. You need to find some light 
before someone boots a floppy disk and sets you 
spinning. The green glow of a computer display 
sure would help. In fact, it would be key! 

But as you bump along, all you find are three 
ports. You can barely make out the letters; MDM, 
KBD, CRT. Which one do you want to go through? 

• If you decide on the MDM port, go to Box 16 

• If you decide on the KBD port, go to Box 9 

• If you decide on the CRT port, go to Box 8 



;^^^^ 








3 With the input key you 
can turn on the screen. 
By the glow of the screen 
you see... A green wire. 

Take it — and remember 
where and when you got it. 

There's also a message 
on the screen: "Cursor was 
here! ! ! " And there's some- 
thing else written — a rid- 
dle: "If you want again to 
be full-sized, then catch 
me at the database where 
you find the pie. " A pie data- 
base? Ridiculous, you say 
But then you see a listing of 
three databases to choose 
from: TheQ-Circle, the 
R-Square or the S-Diago- 
nal database. 

• If you choose Q-Circle, 
goto Box 19 

• If you choose R-Square, 
go to Box 21 

• If you choose S-Diago- 
nal, go to Box 13 




'1 ; 



4 Cursor is more than evil. He's got a baaaad 
sense of humor. Pie R-Square (ur^). Get it? Nyuk- 
nyuk-nyuk. A very old math joke. But the joke's on 
Cursor You solved the riddle! Now you've passed 
through the screen to the other side, and you see... 

A yellow wire. 

Take it — and remember where and when you 
got it. 

Now you see Cursor himself! You put on your 
most menacing look and say: "OK. Cursor, zap me 
back to size or I'll give you a power surge you'll 
never forget." 

"But it's too late," snaps Cursor "The reverse-blue 
beam is stored in this computer's brain, its Central 
Processing Unit (CPU). And the beam is set to self- 
destruct in 20 seconds." Cursor howls: "There's only 
one way to get there in time!" You can take a bus, a 
train or a plane. 

• If you hop on the bus, go to Box 20 

• If you hop on the train, go to Box 10 

• If you hop on the plane, go to Box 7 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



43 



V "^ 



'P?;- 



_ 




■tfOEveryone 
f O knows an 
S with a diago- 
nal line through 
it is an 8. And, 
sorry to say, 
somebody 
"ate" the pie. 
But we won't 
be crumb-y. 
Return to 
Box 3. 



^^An evil guy like Cursor 
I f wouldn't even spend 
downtime in a computer 
named Widgee, Return to 
Boxl. 



7 Sorry small fry. This is a 
Mainframe Plane. 
You're winging your way 
back to the classroom floor. 
Start again back on Box 1. 




OQThe es- 
ibV/cape 
button didn't 
get you out, But 
it did give you a 
chance to re- 
wire the reverse- 
blue beam . If 
you have all four 
wires, go to 
Box 6. Otherwise 
go to Box 1 . 



^QThat was a 
I Jrpie-in-the- 
sky guess. Sor- 
ry. No pie here. 
Q-Circle is 
where they store 
the program- 
ming loops. 
You're going 
round and 
round with no 
break in sight. 
Game Over. 



><^\ 




9 Hope you're wearing 
your letter sweater, 
cause the KBD port puts 
you on the keyboard. It's 
time to make another 
choice: 

• a key, or 

• a glove. 
Take one. 

• If you took the glove, 
go to Box 22. 

• If you took the key, 
return to Box 2. 



^n Don't be 
lOblue. 
You're right on- 
line. Hurry now 
to Box 2. 





'fCOh no! MDM stands for 
f Crmodem. You're being 
transmitted through the phone 
lines back onto the floor of the 
classroom. You return to Box 1 . 



EuJ j ■■ ^ J fej 



10 



The train you hopped is a local that stops at every interface. Time ticks by. Blue 
beam blows up. You're stuck inside this micro for a long time. Game over 




44 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



O/jYou can only get on the bus if you took the bus pass back 
fcC/at the very beginning. If you didn't, go to Box 1. 

If you've got a pass, just hop on the Bus, Gus, and get there in 
tinne. You're no newcomer to micro mass transit. You know that 
bus is the name for the system of electrical lines inside a 
computer This gets you to the CPU in a nanosecond. 

You're ready to go to Box 5. 






lESLii 







0) 






(^ 




OCRT is short for Cathode Ray 
O Tube. A CRT is a computer 
monitor You're on Cursor's track. 
But you need a key item , 

Have you already picked up the 
key? If so, go to Box 3. Otherwise, 
go back to Box 2. 




■f/Tl'd be blue, 
li/too, if I chose 
like you. It was a 
blast while it last- 
ed. Cursor is the 
victor Game Over 



Qy^Uh-oh.you reset 

fcfrthe computer's 

memory, Now, 

you're just a 

memory. 

Game 

over 



^Olt makes sense to choose the same se- 
f fcquence that got you this fan The reverse- 
blue beam zaps you back to full size. Cursor is 
foiled. And the beam works so well you're 
bigger than when you began. "Mean" Marty 
Kochunkle better beware! ■'^^^ 





pOYikes! The 
/bfc furious fingers 
of a harried hacker 
are hitting the key- 
board. Trapped be- 
neath a semicolon, 
the game ends. 



"lA^o Cursor here. 
f frThe class nerd 
mistakes you for an er- 
ror statement and is 
trying to delete you, Go 
back to Box 1. And hur- 
ry! Deletions hurt. 



O^You aren't 
^ I square for 
choosing R-Square. 
Get along to Box 4. 




|?You should have all four wires now. (If you don't, 
C/ go back to Box 1.... oh, no!) With these wires, you 
must rewire the machine in order to get away from 
Cursor You've got to hurry! Think of the how, the 
where and the when of getting here. Then remember 
this hint: you have to rewire in a sequence that 
makes sense in order to return to full size. 

• If you rewire yellow-green-blue-red, go to Box 17 

• If you rewire blue-red-green-yeilow, go to Box 15 

• If you rewire blue-green-yellow-red, go to Box 12 




^^You don't have to wonder 
f / where the yellow went, you're 
going to blast to the past. Sorry, 
wrong sequence. Game Over 




5 Good to see you at the CPU. Your reward... A red wire. 
Take it— and remember where and when you got it. 
Now you've got 19 seconds to figure out how this reverse- 
blue beam works or it will self-destruct. There is an Escape 
button and a Reset button here. Which will you press? 

• If you press Escape, go to Box 23 

• If you press Reset, go to Box 24 



H 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



45 




the fun and challenging 
world of computers 

Now from the people who brought you SESAME STREET 
THE ELECTRIC COMPANY, and 3-2-1 CONTACT comes 
ENTER, the magazine that is as exciting as computers them- 
selves. There is news about computers, video games and 
everything from lasers to robots— plus puzzles, board games 
quizzes and other features that make learning about compu- 
ters easy and fun. You won't want to miss an issue. So order 
your subscription now. 

Parents will love ENTER too. It'll explain why computers 
are such an important part of everyone's future. 



The Making of a 

CHIP 



Subscription Order Form 

D Yes! Please send 1 year (10 issues) of ENTER for only $12.95 
□ Payment enclosed Bill me later 



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ADDRESS 

CITY STATE 

LIST BILLING NAME AND ADDRESS IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE 



NAME 



CITY STATE 

Subscription 10 Canada and olfier counlnes. add SB.OO per year. Please remit in US currency 
Allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. 4HEU6 




For Ages 10 to 16 



CHOOSING THE COMPUTER CAMP 
THAT'S RIGHT FOR YOU 



Y ELIZABETH H E T T I C H 



ennifer Sturm, 12, really 
loves computers. When she 
went away to summer camp 
last year, she chose a com- 
puter camp. "It was a great place to 
learn more about computers and 
also have fun," she says. 

Leslie Schorr, 15, wasn't very in- 
terested in computers. "I didn't 
really want to go to computer 
camp," she recalls. "But my parents 
and I thought I should go to learn 



about computers, because I'd never 
worked on one before. I thought I 
might be bored. But I never did get 
bored, and I really learned a lot." 

Whatever your level of interest in 
computers, you can have fun with 
them this summer Want to stay at 
home? Choose from computer 
classes or day camps with com- 
puters. Thinking of going away? 
There are regular sleep-away 
camps that have some computers, 



and more than 100 camps that 
specialize in computers. Don't have 
a lot of money to spend? There are 
low-cost computer camps and other 
ways for you to learn about com- 
puters. 

The choice is yours. To begin 
choosing between camps, you 
need to decide what you're looking 
for in a camp. Then, you've got to go 
out and find one that matches your 
interests. (Continued an next page) 




K E 



B 



I N G 



c 



lasses and 
day camps are 
alternatives 
to sleepaway 
computer camps. 



\ 


■^I^B^^^^B' '' ''^^1 




^&^ 




Iff-" J 


' m 





Camps offer outdoor activities, too. 



In addition to choosing a cannp 
that suits you, it's important to pick 
one that's dependable. This year, 
that's more important than ever. 

Last summer started out as 
boom time for computer camps. 
The boom, however, suddenly went 
bust. There were many more 
camps, but not that many more 
campers. Some camps went out of 
business — in a few cases, before 
kids got there. Other kids found 
themselves at "computer" camps 
that didn't have adequate facilities. 

Will it happen again this year? 
"This is a difficult time for computer 
camps," according to American 
Camping Association (ACA) 
spokesperson Jim LeMonn. "Some 
will survive and others won't." 

What does that mean to you? 
Simply that you have to do some 
serious research before you sign 
up. 



CHOOSING A CAMP 



So how do you go about choos- 
ing a computer camp? Very 
carefully! There are a number of 




Computer camps give campers a real opportunity to learn from eacti otfier 



48 



ENTER 



Steps you must take before you put 
down a deposit. 

1. Start off by figuring out wfiat you 
want. Ask yourself questions like: 
"How much money can my family 
spend? What type of computers do 
I want to work on? Do I want time 
put aside for activities besides 
computers? Which activities are 
most important to me?" The only 
person who can answer these 
questions is you. 

"I went to Original Computer 
Camp because it seemed like they 
offered more recreational facilities 
than other computer camps," says 
13-year-old Daren Bieuel. On the 
other hand, one reason Leslie 
Schorr decided to go to Marist 
Computer Camp was its con- 
centration on computer time. 
"Since I had never worked on a 
computer before going away to 
camp, I wanted to learn a lot." 
Leslie explains. "At Mahst, we 
spent six hours a day on the 
computers." 

2. Once you've decided what you 
want, get specific information on dif- 
ferent camps. There are two camp 
guides that can help you. The first 
is the American Camping Associa- 
tion's Parent's Guide to Accredited 
Camps, which lists all the camps 
that are approved by the ACA. You 
can get this by sending $8.95 to: 
American Camping Association. 
100 Bradford Woods, Martinsville, 
IN, 46151, 

The other book, Camps 'n Com- 
puters, gives a bhef description of 
camps all over the country, includ- 
ing less expensive YMCA and 
day camps. Camps 'n Computers 
is available for $2 by writing: 
Verbatim, Camps 'n Computers. 
4920 El Camino Real, Los Altos. 
CA, 94022. 

3. Talk to ttie director and get specific 

MARCH 1985 



K E Y B 



/ N G 



information about the camp. Besides 
getting the camp's promotional lit- 
erature, call or write the director 
and ask some hard questions. Here 
are some of the most important 
ones: 

HISTORY: How long has the camp 
been running? How successful has 
it been — have enrollments in- 
creased, decreased or stayed the 
same? 

RE-ENROLLMENT: What is the 
percentage of campers and 
counselors that have returned for 
second and third summers? Many 
computer camps are new, so 
sometimes it's difficult to establish 
its track record. But it's a plus if a 
high percentage of a camp's 
campers and counselors return. 
FACILITIES: Is there a swimming 
pool or lake? Where do kids eat 
and sleep? What kind of recrea- 
tional facilities are available? If 
possible, visit the camp site. See 
for yourself what the camp's facili- 
ties are like, if they need a lot of 
repair, avoid that camp. 
COMPUTERS: Where is the camp 
getting its computers from? If 
they're on loan from a computer 
company, has an agreement been 
established? How many computers 
will there be? Are they the type of 
computer you want to work on? 

If a camp boasts one computer 
per camper, find out how firm the 
figure is. Are the computers new? 
Are they in good shape and readily 
available to campers? One com- 
puter per camper is great— unless 
it's one broken computer per 
camper (See the checklist on this 
page for more questions that 
will help you compare camp 
facilities.) 

FORMER CAMPERS: Can you get the 
names and phone numbers of for- 
mer campers and counselors? Call 
and ask them about their experi- 
ences. These people will give you 



an idea of what camp life is like. 



BEYOND COMPUTERS 



At the average computer camp, 
you'll spend two to five hours a day 
learning about and using com- 
puters. Some is class time, and 
some is free time, What happens 
after you leave the computer room 
depends entirely on the camp you 
choose. 

More and more camps are re- 
sponding to slumping enrollments 
by expanding their recreational 
programs. "We're finding that kids 
want more than just computers," 
says Clark Adams, Director of New 
England Computer Camps. "They 
want to get involved in other ac- 
tivities and have a more well- 
rounded camp experience." 

Cort Shakelford,12,who went 
to Camp Summerlife in Vadito, New 
Mexico, agrees: "Working on 



H 



ow can you 
pick a camp? 
You have to 
ask questions, 
get answers 
andbettie 
finaljudge. 



CAMPCHECKUST 



Here are important questions to 
ask camp directors and coun- 
selors. 

HARDWARE: What types of com- 
puters and peripherals does the 
camp own? Will you have access to 
all of them? 

SOFTWARE: Does the camp have a 
software library that includes utility 
software as well as games? 
COMPUTER /STUDENT RATIO: What is 
the ratio between computers and 
campers? It shouldn't exceed two 
campers per computer at class 
time. Will there be time to work 
alone on a computer? 
INSTRUCTION: What is the instruc- 
tors' training? A teaching back- 
ground for senior instructors is pre- 
ferable. Assistant instructors are 
usually college computer science 



students or former campers. 
INSTRUCTOR /CAMPER RATIO: What 
is the instructor/student ratio? 
There shouldn't be more than five 
campers per instructor 
WHAT LANGUAGES DO THEY TEACH?: 
Does the camp focus on lan- 
guages that you're interested in 
learning? 

COMPUTER ACTIVITIES: Do they 
teach you how to do graphics? 
How to program a robot? Use utility 
software? Do they have people from 
computer companies come to talk? 
HOUSING: Would you prefer to live 
in dorms or cabins? How many kids 
will be assigned to your dorm/ 
cabin? 

OTHER ACTIVITIES: What other ac- 
tivities besides computer 
instruction does the camp offer? 



MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



49 



B 



R D 



I H 



the computer was my favorite ac- 
tivity, but I'd get sick of doing just 
that." 

Most camps offer at least some 
of the more traditional camp ac- 
tivities, like swimming, arts and 
crafts, canoeing, hiorseback riding, 



tennis, hiking and team sports. 
Other camps publish their own 
newsletters, put on plays and talent 
shows. Still others arrange to have 
speakers from various computer- 
related fields come in and talk. All 
of these activities add a new di- 



mension to camp. "Being the editor 
of my camp's newsletter was one of 
the highlights of my summer," says 
Jennifer Sturm, who attended New 
England Computer Camp. 

Evening hours can be some of 
the most fun at camp. At Original 



BASIC TO BACKPACKING: ENTER'S 1985 Guide to Computer Camps 



NAME 


LOCATION 
(CONTACT ADDRESS) 


SESSION LENGTH, 
CQST' 


NO. OF CAMPERS, 
AGE RANGE 


NATIONAL COMPUTER CAMPS 


Simsbury CT: Cleveland, OH; 
Baltimore. MD; Atlanta. GA: 
St. Louis. MO: 203-795-9667 


1-6 weeks 
$395 per week 


125 campers 
9-18 years old 



REGIONAL CAMPS 
EAST 



CHAMPLAIN COLLEGE 
COMPUTER CAMP 


Champlain College 

EO. Box 670 

Burlington. VT 05402 802-658-0800 


Four 2-week sessions 
or one 4-week session 
$885 and $1725 


120 campers 
10-16 years old 


COMPUTER-ED CAMPS 


Wellesley, MA; Long Island. NY; 
Day Camps in MA and Rl 
(Contact 800-341-4433) 


2-week sessions 
$895— residential 
$425— day camp 


130 campers 
8-17 years old 


NEW ENGLAND 
CQMPJTER CAMP 


Banner Lodge 
Moodus. CT 06469 
203-873-1421 


2-week sessions 
$945 per session 


125 campers 
8-17 years old 


MARIST COLLEGE 
COMPUTER CAMPS 


Marist College 
Poughkeepsie. NY 12601 
914-471-3250. exi. 345 


Three 2-week session 
$890 per session (Day 
camp. $515 Includes lunch) 


80 campers 
9-17 years old 



MIDWEST 



ABILENE CHRISTIAN 
UNIVERSITY COMPUTER 
CAMP 


80x8195 
Abilene. TX 79699 
915-677^191 lexl. 2125 


1 -week sessions 
$200— day camp 
S300—residential 


30 campers 
9-14 years old 


BLACK HILLS 

COMPUTER & SCIENCE CAMP 


Rapid City, SD 
512-396-5248 


2- week sessions 
$1950 per session 


20 campers 
12-17 years old 


CULVER COMPUTER CAMP 


Box 6C, Culm, IN 45611 
219-842-3311 


One 2-wesk session 
$565 


40 campers 
9-15 years old 


MIDWEST COMPUTER CAMP 


9392 Lafayette Road 
Indianapolis. IN 46278 
317-297-2700 


1-, 2-, 4- and 6-week sessions 
1 -week session $400. eacti 
additional week $350 


60 campers 
8-18 years old 


UNIVERSITY COMPUTER 
CAMP 


Lapeer. Ml (Contact: 2480 Crooks Road 

Troy, Ml 48034 

313-362-4499 


Five 2-week sessions 
$750 ($700 each additional 
session) 


100 campers 
9-18 years old 



WEST 



EXPERCAMP 


Santa Barbara, CA; Tahoe. NV 
(Contact 800-235-6965) 


Four 12-day sessions 
$895 per 12 days 


75-125 campers 
7-15 years old 


COMPUTER TUTOR CAMP 


Stanford CA 

(Contact 800-227-2866) 


1 - and 2'Week sessions 
$550 and $895 


70 campers 
9-17 years old 


UNIVERSITY OF OREGON 
COMPUTER CAMP 


University ot Oregon. Eugene. OR 97403 
503-686-4231 


One 12-day session 
$485 


60 campers 
9-16 years old 


'Unless otherwise noted, costs are for steep-away camps. All inlormaiion current as ot December 1984, 



50 



ENTER 



MARCH 198 



Y B A R D 



t N 



Computer Camps in California, 
evenings were devoted to "anything 
from counselor hunts and kick the 
can to marshmallow roasts and 
sing-alongs," says camp director 
Mark Zacovic. "It's really a time for 
the whole camp's participation." 



CHOOSE CAREFULLY 



If you take the time to chose your 
camp carefully, your summer at 
computer camp might turn out to 
be the most fun you've ever had. 



But watch out — when you're not 
looking, you might even learn 
something! 

ELIZABETH HETTICH wrote the "Computer 
Camps" article in last year's ENTER (Marcii, 
1984). 



HARDWARE; CAMPER- 
COMPUTER RATIO 



LANGUAGES TAUGHT 



TYPE OF [NSTRUCTORS; 
HOURS PER DAY 



QFF-UNE 
ACTIVITIES 



Apple lie. II + .TRS-80; 
2:1 ratio 



Assembly, BASIC, 
FORTRAN. Pascal 



Certified schooHeactiers; 4 hours 
training/2 hours lab daily 



Board games, computer bingo, 
movies, swimming, tennis 



Commodore-64, IBM PCjr: 
1:1 ratio 



Assembly BASIC. 
Pascal 



Higli school teachers and grad 
students: 4 hours daily 



Aerobics, photography, racketbalt. sailing, 
windsurting, water sports 



MA: Apple. IBM. Commodore, 
Acorn; NY: IBM 



BASIC. Logo. Pascal C. 
Assembly Lisp, robotics. Al 



Public school teachers and 
graduate Computer Ed students; 3 
hours daily 11-4 hours lab time 



Racket sports, skating, swimming, sailing, 
aerobics, cralts. soccer, field trips 



Apple He, He, Macintosh, 
IBM PC, PCjr; 
1:1 ratio 



BASIC. C. Forth. LIST Logo; 
Assembly by request 



Experienced computer teachers 
and college students: 5-8 hours 
daily 



Complete circus program with professional 
instructor, golL swimming, writing program 



Apple He, IBM PC, 
IBM 431 mainlrame: 
1:1 ratio 



APL. BASIC, 
Logo, Pascal 



Computer teachers from Marist 
College: 3 hours instruction/ 
3 hours tab 



Bowling, field trips, indoor swimming, 
racketbalt, tennis 



TRS-80 Models III and IV: 
1:1 ratio 


BASIC, Pascal 


Public school teachers and univer- 
sity computer science majors: 
6 hours daily 


Badminton, tennis, soccer 


Apple lie, IBM compatible 
Coronas. TI99/4A; 


Assembly Basic, 


r, , i J i 1 




Doctorate ana master professors, 


Archery, camping, cave exploration, hiking, 
horseback riding 


COBOL, FORTRAN, 
Logo, Pascal 


and upper-level undergrads; 


1. 1 ratio 


2-4 hours aaiiy 




Apple He, DEC 16 mainlrame, 

Macintosh; 

1:1 ratio 


BASIC. Apple Logo, 
Pascal 


Math teachers from Culver 
Academy: 4-5 hours daily 


Dances, gott hay rides, lake swimming, tennis 


Apple It, He, Atari 4DQI8QQIXL, 
C-64,IBMPCXlTRS-m. 
VIC 20; 1.3:1 ratio 


APL, Assembly BASIC, COBOL. 
FORTRAN, Logo. Pascal, Pilot 






staff and college students; 6 hours 
daily 


Archery, arts and crafts, tmsketbaSI. swimming, 
wilderness camping 


Apple tie, Macintosh: 
1:1 ratio 


BASIC, Logo, Pascal (Also, graphic 
arts, music, robotics, word 
processing) 


Public school and college teachers: 
minimum 4 hours daily 


Arts and crafts, boating, fishing, hiking, 
swimming, tennis, volleyball 




Apple II + , Commodore 64; 


Assemblv BASIC 






Logo, Pascal (also, 


Instructors have extensive comp- 
uter background, 3-6 hours daily 


CA: beach trips, swimming, sailing; 
NV: canoeing, horseback riding 




robotics, artificial Intelligence) 


IBM PC, PCjr, Apple lie; 
2:1 ratio 


BASIC. Logo. Pascal (also, 
game design, spread sheet use 
word processing) 


School teachers and industry 
professionals: 4 hours daily 


Aerobics, crafts, field trips, swimming, tennis 


Apple lie, Macintosh (also, 
peripherals including graphic 
tablets, and light pens); 1:1 ratio 




Doctoral and post-doctoral 
students; 4 hours training/2 


Baseball game field trip. Pacific Ocean trip 
movies, theatre 


(BASIC and Pascal available) 




hours open lab daily 


INFORMATION COMPILED BY ANDREW GlANGOLA 








MARCH 1985 


ENTER 



51 



* 




B 






1^ 



9) ^^ 



^K 



V^ c\ 



PICKING A 

Pimm 

AN EASY GUIDE TO HARD COPY 



-^ 



A computer without a 
M printer is about as useful 
/ ■ as a bicycle with one 
^^ wheel. What good is 
^ A writing a letter if you 
can't mail it? Your graphics 
software may allow you to draw with 
ease, but without a printer you can't 
produce a single drawing. 

TYPES OFmiNTERS 

So if you use your computer, 
sooner or later you'll think about 
buying a printer But there are even 
more models and makes of printers 
than there are types of home 
computers. How do you choose 
one that's right for you? This ENTER 
buyer's guide will point you in the 
right direction. 



BY FRED 6EBHART 



There are four major types of 
computer printers. The one you 
choose will depend on why you 
need a printer in the first place. Do 
you need letters that look like 
they've been typed on a high- 
quality typewriter? Then you'll need 
a letter-quality printer. Do you want 
to be able to print out graphics? 
Then you'll have to look at a dot 
matrix. If all you want is a printed 
copy of your BASIC program, you 
may only need an inexpensive 
thermal printer. 

Below you'll find a short 
description of each category of 
printer. You can also look at our 
Printer Sampler chart for examples 
of each. Remember, there are 
hundreds of printers in each group, 
many that are just as good as the 
models in our chart. 



THE FOUR MAJOR nPES 

THERMAL: Thermal printers use 
heat instead of ink. Hot pins burn 
heat-sensitive paper to create 
letters or graphic designs made up 
of small dots. 

The one big advantage of 
thermal printers is their price. They 
usually cost under $200. However, 
thermal printers tend to have stow 
printing speeds and poor print 
quality They also require special 
paper, which is relatively expensive 
and hard to find. 

DOT MATRIX: Dot matrix printers 
form dots by using pins to strike 
regular paper through a ribbon. 
The print quality depends on how 
many pins are used, A group 



^ Jf Q, '£ •£ 



■^r 






f 






J." 



■u 



^|g ri,^ /^ /*- ^ tr pi 




(matrix) of pins nine dots Inigh by 
nine dots wide (9x9) is thie most 
common. IVlore expensive printers 
use a 28x28 dot matrix for better 
print. 

Dot matrix printers offer the 
widest choice in price, speed and 
quality. They are especially good at 
printing lots of readable pages 
quickly They can print graphics as 
well as regular letters. Many dot 
matrix printers give you a choice of 
different typefaces. However, even 
the best dot matrix print-out still has 
a "computer-y" look to it. 

You can get a good dot matrix 
printer for under $400. In recent 
months, several companies have 



A computer 

without a 

printer is 

nice a bicycle 

witi) one wireer 



introduced good low-cost dot 
matrix printers for as little as $200. 

LETTER-QUAUTY: If your documents 
must look like they were typed on 
an expensive typewriter, letter- 



quality is your only choice. Letter- 
quality printers are basically fancy 
electronic typewriters. Metal letters 
strike the paper through a ribbon to 
form an image. On a daisy wheel 
printer, the letters are arranged 
around a wheel like petals on a 
daisy 

Letter-quality printers tend to be 
slower than dot matrix and more 
expensive. A good one will cost 
about $1,000. Because they use 
fixed letters, letter-quality printers 
can't print graphics. You can, 
however, get different typefaces by 
changing the daisy wheel. 

PRINTER /PLOTTERS: These printers 



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use different colored pens to draw 
on paper. They are excellent at 
producing detailed charts, graphs, 
and sketches. They come in a wide 
range of modefs and are priced 
from $200 to well over $1 ,000. 
Printer plotters aren't good for print- 
ing large amounts of text. 

WHAT ToloOK FOR 

Once you've narrowed your 
choice down to the type of printer 
you want, you'll still have hundreds 
of models from which to choose. 
How can you decide which one to 
buy? We've picked out five areas to 
consider when shopping for a 
printer, Look at several models in 
your category and price range and 
see how they stack up. 

QUAUTYOFnPE: The first thing 
you'll notice is what the print looks 
like. The major choice here is 
between dot matrix and letter- 
quality. But even within those 
categories, there is a wide range to 
choose from. Some dot matrix 
printers produce letters that are 
good enough for almost every use. 
Others produce type that is very 
readable, but has a "computer-y" 
look to it. Thermal printouts will 
sometimes look smudgy and 
blurred. 

On a letter-quality printer, you will 
also want to find out how many 
typefaces are available. If you're 
interested in graphics, you'll want a 
dot matrix that can print in color. 

SPEED: Printing speed is measured 
in characters per second (ops). At 
160 cps, a printer can produce a 
full page in about 20 seconds. At 
40 cps, a printer takes about 45 
seconds to produce the same 



before buying 

a printer, 

malce sure it 

worlcs Witt) 

your compute f 




page. 

How important is speed? Unless 
you have a buffer (see below), you 
can't use your computer while it's 
telling the printer what to print. And 
it can be tedious waiting for a 10- 
page report to be printed one page 
per minute. On the other hand, you 
have to pay more for a faster printer. 

One solution is a printer buffer, a 
memory unit outside the computer. 
The computer dumps whatever is 
to be printed into the buffer, and 
you can go back to computing. 
Then the buffer tells the printer 
what to print. 

PAPER: There are really two points 
to consider here. First, how is the 
paper fed into the computer? 
Second, does the printer require a 
special kind of paper? 
Some printers use friction feed. 



Like a typewriter, you slip a sheet of 
paper under a roller (the platen) 
and turn a knob to bring it into 
position, At the end of the sheet, 
you stop the printer, load another 
sheet, and start printing again. This 
can be a problem if you plan to 
print out more than a couple of 
pages at a time. The advantage is 
you can use any paper you want — 
your own stationery, for example. 

Other printers use a pin feeder. 
Pins on the edge of the platen slip 
into the holes along the side of the 
paper Paper for these printers 
comes in long continuous sheets. 
You don't have to load a new sheet 
for every page. 

A tractor feed works like a pin 
feed, but the tractors can be set to 
accept almost any width paper. 
The most versatile printers offer 
both tractor and friction feed. 

It's important to know if a printer 
requires a special kind of paper. 
Some will only take very narrow 
rolls like the tape from a cash 
register. Others need a coated 
paper, because of the printing 
process they use. 

CONNECTION: There are two ways to 
connect a printer to a computer: 
serial and parallel, Serial means 
the computer sends out information 
in a string, one bit after another. In 
parallel, the computer sends out 
eight bits (one byte) of information 
at once. 

The cable from the printer 
connects to the computer at an 
interface or a port. Most printers 
for less than $500 need parallel 
connections. Most computers 
either come with both parallel and 
serial ports, or are able to add 
them. Newer computers have both 
serial and parallel ports. 

Some computers have special 



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interfaces that make it hard to 
connect a printer from an outside 
company. Atari and Commodore, 
for example, want you to buy Atari 
and Commodore printers. To use 
any otiner brand, you have to buy a 
special interface from a third 
company 

COMPATIBILITY: Before buying any 
printer, mal<e sure that it works with 
your computer There are dozens of 
printer-computer combinations. 
Some combinations work, some 



can be made to work, and some 
never will. 

The best way to avoid getting 
stuck is to see your computer and 
printer at work before you buy 
Make sure you're seeing the same 
equipment you're taking home. 



HOW TO BUY ONE 



Buying a printer is like buying a 
computer First, decide what 
features you need. If you want to 



print graphics, a letter-quality 
printer won't do the job. If you want 
to print in color, get a printer with 
multi-colored ribbons. 

Remember to go over our check- 
list of points: quality; speed; paper 
feed; connectors; compatibility. 
With the wide range of printers on 
the market today you won't have 
any trouble finding a model that fits 
your needs in each category. B 

FRED GEBHART wrote ENTER'S guide to 
modems in our October, 1984. issue. 



ENTER'S Printer Sampler 



These are just a few of the hundreds of printers available. Use this chart to get an idea of the different types of printers, 
Before buying, you should do a more in-depth comparison of all the models available. 



TYPE 


COMPANY/MODEL 


PRICE 


SPEED 


PAPER FEED 


CONNECTORS' 


PRINT QUAUTY 


THERMAL 


Okidata/ 
Okimate 10 


$200 


eocps 


Friction, 
tractor 






Commodore 64, 
Atari 


Good; color graphics 




Alphacom. Inc/ 
Alphacom 81 


$169 


wo cps 


Friction' 


Parallel 


Fair 


DOT MATRIX 


Star Micronics! 

SG-10 


$299 


120 cps 


Friction, 
tractor 


Para/Zo/ 




serial 


Good 








60 cps 


Tractor 


Parallel 


Good 


Cenlronics/GLP 


$299 






Epson/ 
RX-80 F/T 


$380 


WO cps 


Friction, 
tractor 


Parallel 


Good 


LETTER 
QUALin 


Brother/ 
HR'25 


$995 


23 cps 


Friction, 
tractor^ 


Parallel, 
serial 


Very good 




NEC/ 

Spinwr iter 2000 


$900 


20 cps 


Friction, 
tractor^ 


Parallel, 
serial 


Very good 




Juki/6300 


$995 


40 cps 


Friction, 
tractor^ 


Parallel, 
serial 


Very good 


PRINTER/ 
PLOTTER 






8 cps' 


Friction, 
tractor 


Parallel, 
serial 


Very good 
color graphics 


C.ltohl 0X4800 


$695 



NOTES: 1. Options available 2. Requires tieat-sensitive roll paper 3. Costs extra 4. For text-sized graptilcs 



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Computer 
construction worker 

BILL BUDGE WANTS TO HELP YOU BUILD THE ULTIMATE COMPUTER GAME 



BY SUSAN MEYERS 





hat's him," whispers a 
voice in the crowd. A tall, 
handsome 28-year-old walks into 
the computer store, sits down 
at a table and begins signing 
autographs. 

His face is familiar. You may have 
seen it on T-shirts and posters, or in 
magazine ads. If you didn't know 
better, you might think he was a hot 
new celebrity. But this isn't a rock or 
movie star. This is software design- 
er Bill Budge— one of the first real 
computer celebrities. 

Budge is best known for two 
best-selling computer games. His 
Raster Blaster is a computerized 
pinball game that was a big hit in 
1981 . In 1983's Pinball Construction 
Set. he created a software package 
that lets you create your own com- 
puter pinball game. Bill's most 
recent release is Mousepaint, a 
graphics program. Mousepaint 
uses a mouse controller and brings 
Macintosh-style graphics to the 
Apple lie and lie. 

Bill's newest project isn't a com- 
puter game. It's an idea for software 
that could change the way we con- 
trol the power of our computers. 



LTIMATEBUILDm 
^^ BLOCKS 



"What 1 want to do," Budge says, 
"is build a construction set that 
people can use to construct other 
construction sets." 

If Bill's idea seems difficult to 
grasp, don't worry. He doesn't com- 
pletely understand it himself .^yet. 

"I'm thinking of a primitive parts 
box," he explains. "This software 
would contain elements that could 
be used to construct more complex 
parts. Sort of like a sophisticated 
tinker toy set. You could use these 
parts to build anything you wanted 
to build." 

Bill's "Construction Set Con- 
struction Set" would require a 
"graphic" programming language. 
This language would use symbols 
to represent computer commands. 
It would let someone with no pro- 
gramming knowledge really use 
the power of the computer. Users 
could manipulate on-screen sym- 
bols to construct computer models 
of robots, vehicles, galaxies, or al- 
most anything. And these models 




would behave according to the 
physical laws of the real world. 

Similar computer models can be 
constructed today But highly 
skilled programmers must use 
high-level code to bring them to the 
computer screen. Bill wants to give 
everyone this kind of computer 
power. 



RAVE NEW WORLDS 



This talk about an ultimate com- 
puter software construction set 
might sound wild. But Bill has built 
his reputation breaking the rules of 
what computer software can be. 

His Pinball Construction Set 
(PCS), for instance, is more than a 
game. It's a toolbox that lets you 
construct and play your own 
games. PCS uses on-screen sym- 
bols ("icons") such as a hammer, 
scissors and paintbrush to let you 
create your own unique pinball 
games. 

PCS even lets you do something 
you could never do with a real 
pinball game — change the laws of 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 




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MARCH 1985 



ENTER 



67 




■J^^^^^^^ITiPfs vou create an '"" 
^ba« construction set fete y 



It can be harder to 
find the simple 
solution to pro- 
gramming problems. 
Whenever I use a 
trick, there's usually 
an easier way 
that works better" 




nature. Bill added a unique feature 
to PCS called the "world icon." This 
actually lets users adjust the force 
of gravity and alter the speed of the 
ball . It even lets users change the 
springiness as well as the bounce 
of the pinball game board. 

This freedom of choice makes 
PCS seem almost limitless. Even 
Bill isn't sure how many different 
game creations are possible. When 
asked recently, he took out a 
pocket calculator and punched in 
some figures. A row of nines 
flashed across the screen. 

"Looks like it's close to infinite," 
he said with a satisfied grin. 



UILDINGFROM 
SCRATCH 



Long before these software in- 
ventions made him famous, Bill 
Budge loved to build things. As a 
young boy (in a family that included 
triplets!), he was always building 
with blocks, tinker toys or erector 
sets. As he got older, his building 




blocks became more complex. 

"In high school, I was into astron- 
omy and I built a telescope," he 
remembers. "My friends and I built 
some pretty dangerous things — 
rockets and stuff. It's amazing we 
didn't kill ourselves." 

Bill admits he eventually became 
a 'computer nerd.' "The last two 
years [in high school], 1 was just 
programming all the time." 

But even this didn't completely 
satisfy his creative urge. 

"When I first went into college, 
I didn't do any programming at all 
for more than two years," Bill recalls. 
He went to college at the University 
of California at Santa Cruz, majored 
in English and dreamed of becom- 
ing a novelist. 

In the end, his talent with com- 
puters won out. He transferred to 
Berkeley earned a degree in com- 
puter science, then got a job with 
the Apple Computer Company. 
While there, he used his spare time 
to design Raster Blaster — the hit 
that launched his career Almost 
overnight, he was a hot software 
designer — with poster, T-shirts, 
promotional tours and all the trap- 
pings of celebrity. 



ROGRAMMING 
FOR PERFECTION 



When those tours are over, Bill 
returns to his workroom. This room, 
on the lower level of his house in the 
Piedmont hills, is just 45 minutes 
from Silicon Valley in California. It is 
littered with books, papers, toy 
robots, and bits of erector set. As 
Budge switches on an IBM PC- 
one of his more than 20 com- 
puters — and begins to work, the 
world outside seems far away. 





ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



.-X^iA^^^^^AU^.-..^ 



"I'm kind of glad when I don't 
have anything new out and people 
forget about me," he admits. "Then 
I can think about ttie things I want 
to do next. 

"Games have been really primi- 
tive up until now....Games are flat 
and two-dimensional. Eventually 
(as computer memory expands) 
we'll even be able to do 3-D 
games," says Budge. "There's 
so much potential. The only 
thing that'll limit us in creating soft- 
ware is our own imagination." 

As Bill works toward creating his 
ultimate software construction set, 
he knows imagination alone won't 
be enough. He understands that 
every programmer — from the be- 
ginner to the best — must overcome 
a great obstacle. 

"The thing about any program 
that you do is that everything has to 
be perfect.. ..You make one wrong 
move and the whole thing is liable 
to crash," he says. 

That's why it can take months — 
or even years — for Bill to complete 
a new program. 

"I can't hold the wholeprogram in 
my head at once, so ! make lists of 
things to do," he says. "I do them 
and then I see other things that 
have to be done. So I make another 
list. It goes on and on." 

Bill understands that creating a 
good program can take a long 
time, and that shortcuts usually 
don't work. "Everyone's interested 
in tricks they can use," he says. 
"But every time I think of a cute trick 
to get around a problem, it turns out 
that there is a straightforward way 
of doing it better. Sometimes it's a 
lot harder to think of a simple way of 
solving a programming problem." 

"So," he advises, "beware of 
hacks. Too many hacks means 







you're out of phase with the natural 
flow of the universe." To stay "in 
phase," says Bill, you must try to 
develop your own programming 
style. 

Just as each artist's work is 
unique, says Bill, "no two program- 
mers work alike. ..Each one has an 
individual style." 

He picks up a thick stack of 
paper, the size of a telephone 
book. It's the printout of the source 
code — the programming com- 
mands — for Pinball Construction 
Set. "Look at this," he says, point- 
ing to a column of letters and 
numbers that move the program 
from one point to another. 

"That's a beautiful loop, and no 
one else would have done it quite 
that way. 

"For me, it's the process that's 
important," says this celebrity soft- 
ware designer, as though repeating 
something he wants to be sure to 
remember "Not the end result." S 

SUSAN MEYERS is ENTER'S West Coasl 
editor. 



P, 



rogrammmg IS a 
delicate art, says 
Bill. "Everything 
has to be perfect 
You make just one 
wrong move and the 
whole thing is 
liable to crash" 





MARCH 1985 



ENTER 






A-NEWWAVEOF 





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n*iA . 



COMI^^.COMMUNICATION 



BY DICK ROBINSON 



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On a tropical island near 
the Florida coast, Ron 
Reisman hits three 
computer keys. A high- 
pitched whistling sound shoots 
through the clear waters of the Gulf 
of Mexico. In an instant, a 420- 
pound bottlenose dolphin named 
Nat swims up to Mandy Rodriguez. 
"Thatta boy, Nat," shouts Mandy, 
tossing a herring fish io the 420- 
pound dolphin. The fish is Nat's 
reward. 

Mandy and Ron's reward is Nat's 
quick response (o the computer- 
generated signal. This is a small, 
but important, step in bringing hu- 
mans closer to real communication 
with another species. It's a step that 
Reisman, Rodriguez, and a few 




From Florida to Hawaii, computers 

are helping bring us closer to true 

communication with another species. 



other researchers at the Dolphin 
Research Center are taking with 
the help of computers. 

DOLPHIN TALIS 



Dolphins have always fascinated 
Ron. 

As a student, he would read 
ancient Greek stories that told how 
dolphins rescued people from 
drowning, carried a poor man's son 
to school every day, and led lost 
ships home. 

"I became fascinated with the 
creature's friendly attitude toward 
humans," he recalls. Inspired by 
these tales, Ron began studying 
the way that dolphins can 
communicate. After completing 
school, he joined the Dolphin 
Research Center in Grassy Key, 
Florida. 

For the past six years, Ron, 
Mandy and others at the Institute 
have been trying to develop a "lan- 
guage" that can be understood by 
dolphins and humans alike. It is not 
a language of words like we use, 
but a language made up of whistle- 
like sounds that stand for different 
objects or actions. 

"Computers are a breakthrough," 
says Ron, who is studying for a 
master's degree in computer 
science from the University of 
Miami. 

Three years ago. he began 
using an Apple II to aid in his 



research efforts, 

"I couldn't conceive of doing 
research on dolphins without a 
computer," he now says. "Every- 
body I know involved in this 
research is using computers exten- 
sively. ..Computers affect almost 
every aspect of [our] program— 
from training dolphins, to orienta- 
tion of trainers, to the way data is 
collected and analyzed." 

Before computers, dolphin 
communication research was 
awkward. Researchers would use 
spoken commands, hand signals 
and mouth whistles that mimicked 
the dolphins' own sounds. 

Computers have improved these 



methods, says Ron. They've made 
the research more precise and 
scientific, 

"Computers change human 
whistles to a high-pitched range 
dolphins can hear and easily 
imitate," he explains. Computers 
have the ability to exactly 
reproduce the whistling sounds. 
"Without a computer," says Ron, 
"the sound comes out a little 
different each time and confuses 
the dolphins." 

Computers also eliminate the 
possibility that human researchers 
will tip off a whistled command with 
body movement or tone of voice. 
Now researchers at the Institute 




62 



With a computer's iieip, Ron is able to "talk" to Nat in simple sentences. 

ENTER MARCH 1985 




"/ couldn't conceive of doing dolphin 

research without a computer," says Ron Reisman. 

"Computers are a breakthrough." 



can be out of sight when they send 
the dolphins computer-generated 
commands. 

HOW COMPUTERS TAIX 
TO DOLPHINS 



The Dolphin Research Center's 
system consists of an Apple II 
computer, an underwater micro- 
phone, a custom-designed audio 
input board and a modified 
Mountain Computer synthesizer 

Here's how it works: First, a 
whistling sound is picked up by 
the microphone. This sound 
is then processed through the 



audio input board and displayed 
on a computer monitor The monitor 
shows the sound's volume and 
pitch as a curved graph. "Now we 
can see high-pitched dotphin 
sounds that we couldn't even hear 
before," says Ron. 

The custom-built audio input 
board that makes this possible 
was designed by Charlie Kellner 
and Eric Larson of the Apple 
Computer Company. '"We took 
some 20 existing [computer] chips 
that record loudness, frequency 
and time. ..and put them together in 
a combination that was never done 
before," Ron says. "Everyone told 
me what 1 wanted to do was impos- 




A computer-generated signal is sent out and Nat the dolphin leaps to action. 

MARCH 1965 ENTER 



sib!e. But we did it for SI 75 in parts 
....Others have spent $40,000 on 
equipment to get a similar system," 

Once the dolphin sound is stored 
in the computer memory the 
synthesizer can play the sound 
back at a human or dolphin's 
hearing range. 

The synthesizer which does it all 
— a modified Mountain Computer 
MusicSystem 2 — is similar to 
synthesizers found in many elec- 
tronic musical instruments. Using a 
special communication program, 
researchers can create a file of 
dolphin sounds. They can also use 
the system to rearrange these 
sounds, stringing them together to 
form simple "sentences." 

DIGITAL DOLPHINS 



Using this system to create 
"sentences," Ron has taught Nat to 
follow simple commands correctiy 
more than 80 percent of the time. 
Even with 5 other distracting 
dolphins in Nat's seawater pen, this 
eight-year-old dolphin has learned 
a dozen "words." 

"Nat, over speaker," commands 
the computer-generated whistle. 
Nat obeys by jumping over the 
floating speaker in his pen. He also 
obeys "Nat, under towel" and "Nat, 
retrieve towel." 

Most important, says Ron, this 
dolphin isn't |ust following 
commands; he's demonstrating 



63 




"Imagine," says Ron Reisman, "a 

dolphin composing and communicating 

a unique sentence to a human," 



language-like communicalion. Nat 
seems to know thiat the way the 
sounds are combined changes 
theirmeaning. For example, Nat 
followed the command: "Nat 
speaker fetch-to towel" by moving 
a floating speaker to a towel. This 
showed that Nat knew the dif- 
ference between that command 
and a similar sounding com- 
mand — "Nat, towel fetch-to speaker" 
— in which he takes a towel to the 
speaker. The sounds are the same. 
But, as with words in a sentence, 
their meaning changes when they 
are put together in different order. 
Demonstrating that a dolphin can 
understand the meaning of 
different sound combinations is a 
big step in human-dolphin 
communication. 

The Dolphin Research Center 
is not the only place making such 
progress. Other researchers are 
also reporting computer-aided 
advances: 

• At the University of Hawaii's 
Kewalo Basin Marine Mammal Lab- 
oratory, (wo dolphins named 
Akeakamai and Phoenix have dem- 
onstrated even more sophisticated 
language ability "As far as I know, 
only three dolphins on earth show 
understanding of object words and 
syntax," says Ron. "Nat in Florida, 
and Akeakamai and Phoenix in 
Hawaii. 

• In Redwood City, California, 
pioneer dolphin researcher Dr 
John Lilly is using an Apple II 



microcomputer and aPDP1104 
minicomputer in his effort to create 
a similar human-dolphin dialogue, 
"It's not stretching at all to say that 
computers make much of our work 
possible," says Lilly's assistant. 
Bob Swanson. 

THENEXTSTEP 



But researchers admit much 
work must be done before dolphins 
and humans can communicate on 
anything more than a pnmitive 
level, 

Ron Reisman is moving ahead, 
planning development of a special 
undenA^ater "keyboard" and moni- 
tor that will enable the dolphins to 



interact more directly with the 
computer. Ron believes the early 
steps that have been taken with the 
help of computers are bringing us 
closer to truly talking with the 
animals: "If dolphins can 
understand syntactical behavior 
(words put into meaningful order], 
(hen there is a very good possibility 
that the dolphins should be able 
to produce it, 

"Imagine," he says, "a dolphin 
composing and communicating an 
intelligent, unique sentence to a 
human." H 

DICK ROBINSON, president olthe Florida 
Chapter ol the American Medical Writers 
Association, wrote "The Light Fantastic" in 
ENTER'S November 1983 issue. 



SEA-SOUND SOFTWARE 



Now you have a chance to 
explore the seas and swim 
like a dolphin. 

Dolphin's Pearl, from 
Reston Publishing Co. for the 
Commodore 64 and Atari 
800XL, lets you learn more 
about dolphin lore while you're 
searching for the hidden pearl. 
This action/adventure software 
is available for $29.95 at most 
computer stores. For more 
information, call Reston toll- 
free at 800-336-0338. 




64 



ENTER 



MARCH 1985 



t^jpy 



WITH 



SESAME 
STREET 

Sesame Street Magazine- 
Big Bird and his deUghtf ul 



^smmmm 



[sesame snsnl 






terrific times a year. (It's I _ 
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ELECTRIC 



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SESAME STREET ORDER FORM 

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TEST DRIVE 
AN ELEPHANl 




Elephant Moppy Disks are the perfect vehicle for storing and pro- 
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drive. They re available now at your local computer showroom And 
there s no waiting for delivery. For the Elephant dealer nearest you. call 
1-800-343-84I3. In Massachusetts, call collect 16171 769-8150 

ELEPHANT NEVER FORGETS.